Drug Info Final 4
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Define number needed to treat (NNT):
The number of subjects who will likely need to be treated in order to cure or prevent 1 additional case or event under the same study conditions.
How do you calculate NNT?
NNT = 1/absolute risk reduction (ARR)
Interpret an NNT of 25 to the DRUG A & DRUG B case involving blindness. (DRUG A was found to be more effective).
25 patients must be treated with DRUG A for each additional person no to become blind.
Define number needed to harm (NNH):
The number of patients who will likely be treated for each additional adverse event related to treatment.
*Researchers would like this number to be large*
What is the difference between "Odds" and "Risk?"
Risk: The probability that an event will happen compared to ALL POSSIBLE chances for it to occur.
Odds: The probably that an event will happen compared with the chance that it will NOT HAPPEN.
True/False: Odds ratio only applies to retrospective and case-control studies.
- You must know when an event occurred as well as when it DID NOT occur. This is only possible in retrospective situations.
Calculate the odds of experiencing renal failure with uncontrolled plasma glucose levels.
Renal Failure: 7, No Renal Failure: 11
Total Subjects: 18
7/11 = 0.636
Calculate the odds ratio for renal failure with uncontrolled glucose levels (odds = 0.636) and controlled glucose levels (odds = 0.188).
0.636/0.188 = 3.4
Interpret an odds ratio of 3.4 relating to renal failure in uncontrolled glucose levels compared to controlled glucose levels.
Patients with uncontrolled glucose levels are 3.4 times AS LIKELY to have renal failure than patients with controlled glucose levels.
Interpret an odds ratio of 1
Interpret an odds ratio of 0.3
- Odds are similar in both groups.
- Odds of renal failure in group with controlled glucose levels were 30% of the odds of renal failure in group with uncontrolled glucose levels.
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