______________ as a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals and organic matter.
The continual process by which new rock forms from old rock material is called the ___________rock cycle.
The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock is called ___________.
Weathering is important because it breaks down rock into fragments. These rock and mineral fragments are called____________.
The process by which sediment is removed from its source is called ______________.
The process in which sediment moved by erosion is dropped and comes to rest is called __________.
Sediment may be pressed and cemented together by minerals dissolved in water to form _________rock.
If the temperature and pressure are high enough at the bottom of the sediment, the rock can change into __________________ rock.
____________ is movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the Earth’s surface.
scientists divide all rock into three main classes based on how the rock formed: _______________, _______________, and ___________________.
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
The minerals a rock contains determine the ______________ of that rock.
The size, shape, and positions of the grains that make up a rock determine a rock’s ___________ .
light-colored rocks are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium. These rocks are called ______________ rocks.
The dark-colored rocks, called __________ rocks, are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium, and poor in silicon.
The amount of time it takes for magma or lava to cool determines the ____________ of igneous rock.
When magma intrudes, or pushes, into surrounding rock below the Earth’s surface and cools, the rock that forms is called _________ igneous rock.
__________ are large, irregular-shaped intrusive bodies.
The largest of all igneous intrusions are _____________.
Igneous rock that forms from magma that erupts, or extrudes, onto the Earth’s surface is called ___________ igneous rock.
The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is its layers, or _________.
______________ sedimentary rock forms when rock or mineral fragments, called clasts, are cemented together.
sedimentary rock forms when minerals crystallize out of a solution, such as sea water, to become rock.
___________ sedimentary rock forms from the remains of once-living plants and animals.
________________ is the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers.
_________________ rocks are rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition of the rock have changed.
When pressure builds up in rock that is buried deep below other rock formations or when large pieces of the Earth’s crust collide with each other, ___________ _____________ occurs.
Some metamorphic minerals form only at certain temperatures and pressures. These minerals, known as __________ minerals, are used to estimate the temperature, depth, and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism.
The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands is called _______________ .
The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands is called _______________ .
_______________ is a change in the shape of a rock caused by a force placed on it.
layers of sedimentary rock is called _______.
_____________________ is made of fragments of rocks cemented together by a mineral such ad calcite or quartz.
clasic sedimentary rock
________ forms from solutions os dissolved mineral and water.
chemical sedimentary rock
_________ is made up of the skeletons or shells of sea animals.
organic sedimentary rock
__________ is the process in which sedimentary are arranged in layers
_______ is when magma moves through the crust, the magma heats the surrounding rock and changes it.
___________ occurs when pressure builds up in a rock that is buried deep below other rock formations, or when large peices of earths crust collide with each other.
A ____________ is where the mineral grains are arranged in planes or band.
foliated metamorpic rock
A ________________ is where the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or band.
nonfolliated metamorphic rock
__________ is a change is the shape of a rock caused by a force placed on it