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Menstrual cycle usually begin between
10 and 13 years of age, after the peak of adolescent growth spurt
Development of breast tissue takes an average of
3 years, although the range may be up to 6 years
Increased progesterone and estrogen
stimulates growth cells in the reproductiive tract
help prepare body from pregnancy and maintain pregnancy
most common spread in american women, causes ulcers of the cervecs, culters are expensive and not ordered routinely
symptoms- menstral irregular
Chlamydia and Gonorrhea can be...
can be cured but can also damage the reproductive system if left untreated
some STIs can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can cause infertility, some may even be fatal
- penicellin, affect a newborn, minimal symptoms
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Most common symptoms of PID:
diffuse pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen, Right upper abdominal pain increased foul-smelling vaginal discharge
fever and chills
vomiting and nausea
pain during urination
pain during sexual intercourse
PID occurs in women....
Ages under 25 years of age
Can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy
PID is a result of HIV
Human Papilloma Virus
one of the main causes of cervical cancer
treatment to reduce the signs and symptoms, there is currently no cure for this virus
HPV vaccine has recently been developed to prevent HPV infection
age 9 to 26
- 3 shots over 6 months
- type 6 and 11 are most common
- Trychloric acid for a treatment
- for it .
Cervical Cancer Risks
- Early sexual activity
- Childhood diabetes, arthritus – immunosuppression
Cervical Cancer Symptoms
Abnormal vaginal bleeding (particularly after sex)
Pain in the lower back
Pain while urinating
Pain during sex
Cervical Cancer Diagnostic Tests
Papanicolaou test (PAP test)-Pap test 90% of early change in the cervix
Cervical Cancer Treatment
Treated- caught in early mid stage
Cryco surgery- freezing technique or laser surgery- get rid of abnormal tissue
Problems with low birth weight
baby in hospital for a longer time missing out on mother bonding time
for multiple relatives with breast or ovarian cancer particularly if diagnosed at early age.
Over age 50
Early menarche before age 12, late menopause after age 55
First full term pregnancy after 30 can cause cancer
What are the lymph nodes of the Breast
Lateral, Central, Subcapular and Pectoral lymph nodes
Progression in breast cancer can be detected from the lymph nodes
Central axillary nodes
high up in the middle of the axilla, over the ribs and serratus anterior muscle. These receive lymph from the other three groups of nodes.
along the lateral edge of the pectoralis major muscle, just inside the anterior axillary fold.
along the lateral edge of the scapula, deep in the posterior axillary fold.
along the humerus, inside the upper arm.
Where is the most common site for breast cancer??
Upper Outer Quadrent 48%
may reappear in the aging male and may be due to testosterone deficiency.
1 to 2 years of decline in ovarian function, irregular menses that gradually stop. Ovaries don’t produce progesterone and estrogen.
Breast glandular tissue atrophy because of decreased estrogen & progesterone
Breast tissue is replaced with fibrous connective tissue; beginning in the middle years & markedly in 8th & 9th decades of life which turns into decreased breast size & loss of elasticity
How do you Palpate the Breast
Use fat pads of three fingers fingers and make gentle rotary motion on breast
Palpate Nipples and Palpate Axillae
What are the Two ways to palpate the Breast??
- With either pattern, move in a clockwise direction, taking care to examine every
- square inch of the breast.
- Spokes-on-a-Wheel Pattern: start at the nipple and palpate out to the periphery as if following
- spokes on a wheel.
Concentric-circles Pattern: start at the nipple and palpate in concentric circles, increasing out to the periphery.
When do you start Breast Self-Examination (BSE)
age 20 on up; monthly, 1 week post-menses
Reduced the risk of Ovarian Cancer
breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use greater than 5 years
Clinical Manifestations and symptoms of Ovarian Cancer
¨Loss of appetite
¨Change in bowel habits
¨Abnormal vaginal bleeding
How is Ovarian Cancer usually Diagnosed