A&P Final

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A&P Final
2010-12-09 17:57:12

A&P Final
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  1. Gyri
    thick wrinkles or folds in the cortex of the cerebrum or cerebellum
  2. Myosin
    a protein with a long shaft-like tail and a globular head; constitutes the thick myofilament
  3. Tinnitus
    ringing in your ears
  4. Paralysis
    a loss or impairment of voluntary movement in a body part, caused by injury or disease of the nerves, brain, or spinal cord
  5. Multiple sclerosis
    the Oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths of the CNS deteriorate and are replaced by hardened scar tissue
  6. Chemoreceptors
    an organ or cell specialized to detect chemicals
  7. Photoreceptors
    the eyes; respond and absorb light and generate a chemical or electrical signal. There are 3 kinds: rods, cones, and certain ganglion cells
  8. Thermoreceptors
    a neuron specialized to respond to heat or cold, found in the skin and mucous membranes
  9. Actin
    (F) - a fibrous protein made of a long chain of G actin molecules twisted into a helix; main protein of the thin myofilament
  10. A bands
    dark band formed by parallel thick filaments that partly overlap the thin filaments
  11. I bands
    a light band composed of thin filaments only
  12. Conjunctivitis
    inflammation of the conjunctiva (eye)
  13. Insertion
    the attachment site at its more mobile end
  14. Origin
    the bony site of attachment at the relatively stationary end
  15. Paresthesias
    abnormal sensations of prickling, burning, numbness, or tingling; a symtpom of nerve trauma or other peripheral nerve disorders
  16. Hypoglossal
    • - 12th cranial nerve
    • - motor; controls tongue movements
  17. Meningitis
    • - inflammation of the meninges
    • - bacteria invade the CNS by way of the nose or throat
  18. Vagus
    • - 10th cranial nerve
    • - mixed-
    • - the most extensive distribution of any cranial nerve, supplying not only organs in the head and neck, but also most viscera of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
    • - control of cardiac, pulmonary, digestive, and urinary functions
  19. Encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain, accompanied by fever, usually caused by mosquito-born viruses or herpes simplex virus; causes neuronal degeneration and necrosis; can lead to delirium, seizures, and death
  20. Abducens
    • - 6th cranial nerve
    • - motor
    • - controls lateral eye movement
  21. dura mater
    • - "tough mother"
    • - forms a loose fitting sleeve called the dural sheath around the spinal cord
  22. arachnoid mater
    consists of a simple squamous epithelium, the arachnoid membrane, adhering to the side of the dura
  23. Pia mater
    • "delicate mother"
    • - delicate, translucent membrane that closely follows the contours of the spinal cord
  24. Trigeminal
    • 5th cranial nerve
    • - mixed
    • the largest of the cranial nerves and the most important sensory nerve of the face. it forks into three divisions:
    • - ophthalmic
    • - maxillary
    • - mandibular
  25. Na and K
    • - K diffuses easier than Na
    • - Therefore, Na/K pump is used to keep regulated
    • - Neurons leak all the time
    • - Na in and K out
  26. Acetylcholine
    (ACh) - a neurotransmitter released by somatic motor fibers, parasympathetic fibers, and some other neurons
  27. cranial nerves
    any of the 12 pairs of nerves connected to the base of the brain and passing through the foramina of the cranium
  28. Spinal nerves
    any of the 31 pairs of nerves that arise from the spinal cord and pass through the intervertebral foramina
  29. Fissures
    • a slit through a bone
    • (orbital fissures behind the eye)
  30. Sulci
    a groove in the surface of an organ, as in the cerebrum or the heart
  31. PCL
    • Posterior Cruciate Ligament
    • prevents the femur from sliding off the front of the tibia and prevents the tibia from being displaced backward
  32. ACL
    • Anterior Cruciate Ligament
    • - prevents hyperextension
  33. Anatomy
    the study of structure/form
  34. Cytology
    the study of the structure and function of individual cells
  35. Bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa, usually due to overextension of a joint
  36. Tendinitis
    A form of bursitis in which a tendon sheath is inflamed
  37. Atoms
    smallest particle of living organisms with unique identities
  38. Organ
    a structure composed of two or more tissue types that work together to carry out a particular function
  39. DNA
    deoxyribonucleic acid
  40. Rough ER
    • - composed of parallel flattened sacs covered with granules called ribosomes
    • - produced the phosolipids and proteins of the plasma membrane
  41. Mitochondria
    • - powerhouse of the cell
    • - organelles specialized for synthesizing ATP
  42. Semipermeable
    allows some substances to pass through while excluding others
  43. optic disc
    where the optic nerve leaves the rear of the eye
  44. Homeostasis
    the tendency of a living body to maintain relatively stable internal conditions in spite of greater changes in its external environment
  45. axial
    pertaining to the head, neck, and trunk; excludes the appendicular portion
  46. Serous
    a watery, low protein fluid similar to blood serum, formed as a filtrate of the blood or tissue fluid or as a secretion of serous gland cells; moistens the serous membrane
  47. Synovial
    a lubricating fluid similar to egg white in consistency, found in the synovial joint cavities and bursae
  48. Sebum
    an oily secretion of the sebbaceous glands that keeps the skin and hair pliable
  49. ceruminous glands
    • formed only in the external ear canal -
    • - combines with sebum and dead epithelium cells to form earwax (cerumen)
  50. Vellus
    the fine hair present on the body before puberty
  51. melanin
    • the most significant factor in skin color
    • - two types: eumelanin and pheomelanin
  52. catalysts
    a substance that causes or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
  53. systematic anatomy
    the study of the all the systems of the body one by one
  54. cells
    the smallest units of an organism that carry out all the basic functions of life; smallest living thing
  55. tissue
    a mass of similar cells and cell products that forms a discrete region of an organ and performs a specific function
  56. papillary
    shaped like a nipple or layer of the dermis
  57. hyaline
    a form of cartilage with clear matrix and fine collagen fibers but no elastic fibers or coarse collagen bundles
  58. elastic
    a connective tissue fiber, composed of elastin, stretches under tension and returns to its original length when released; responsible for resinence of organs - skin and lungs
  59. gland
    a cell or organ that secretes substances for use elsewhere in the body or releases them for elimination from the body
  60. bone
    the hard connective tissue forming the substance of the skeleton of most vertebrates, composed of a collagen-rich organic matrix impregnated with calcium, phosphate, and other minerals.
  61. muscle
    a tissue composed of cells or fibers, the contraction of which produces movement in the body.

    an organ, composed of muscle tissue, that contracts to produce a particular movement.
  62. nervous system
    brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia

    rapid internal communication, coordination, motor control, and sensation
  63. freckles
    flat melanized patches that will vary with heredity and exposure to the sun
  64. anatomical position
    a reference posture that allows for standardized anatomical terminology. a subject in anatomical position is standing with the feet flat of the floor, arms down to the side, and palms and eyes directed forward
  65. shaft
    portion of hair above the skin surface
  66. malignant melanoma
    most deadly form of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes, often a preexisting mole
  67. terminal hair
    longer, coarser, usually more heavily pigmented. forms eyebrows and eyelashes and covers the scalp; forms axillary and pubic hairs after puberty
  68. basal cell carcinoma
    most common type of skin cancer but also the least dangerous
  69. mammary
    milk producing glands that develop within the female breast during pregnancy and lactation
  70. paralysis
    a loss or impairment of voluntary movement in a body part, caused by injury or disease of the nerves, brain, or spinal cord
  71. left hemisphere
    • categorical hemisphere
    • controls the right side of the body
  72. right hemisphere
    • representational hemisphere
    • - controls left side of the body
  73. sarcomere
    the distance from one Z disc to another; the contractile unit of a muscle fiber
  74. neurons
    nerve cells that carry out the communicative role of the nervous system
  75. perimysium
    thicker connective tissue sheath that wraps muscle fibers together in bundles called fascicles
  76. afferent or sensory
    specialized to detect stimuli such as light, heat, pressure and chemicals, and transmit information about them to the CNS
  77. efferent or motor
    sends signals predominantly to muscle and gland cells - away from the CNS
  78. contractility
    ability to shorten
  79. axons
    a process of a neuron that transmits action potentials; also called nerve fibers. one axon to one neuron. much longer and much less branched than dendrites
  80. dendrites
    process of a neuron that recieves information from other cells or from environmental stimuli and conducts signals to the soma
  81. LTM
    • long term memory
    • lasts up to a lifetime and is less limited than STM in the amount of information it can store
  82. STM
    • short term memory
    • - lasts from a few seconds to a few hours; may be quickly forgotten
  83. medulla oblongata
    most caudal part of the brainstem, immediately superior to the foramen magnum of the skull; connects the spinal cord to the rest of the brain
  84. Stroke/CVA
    cerebrovascular accident - sudden death of brain tissue caushed by ischemia
  85. labyrinth
    the internal ear, consisting of a bony portion (bony labyrinth) and a membranous portion (membranous labyrinth).
  86. auditory canal
    the passage leading through the temporal bone to the tympanic membrane
  87. alzheimers
    memory loss, may ask the same questions repeatedly, reduced attention span, disoriented or lost in familiar places
  88. spina bifida
    a congenital defect in which one or more vertebrae fail to form a complete vertebral arch for enclosure of the spinal cord
  89. cerebral hemispheres
    Function: n : either of the two hollow convoluted lateral halves of the cerebrum
  90. lens
    flattened, tightly compressed, transparent cells called lens fibers
  91. iris
    • adjustable diaphragm that controls the diameter of the pupil
    • colored part of the eye
  92. pupil
    • black part of the eye
    • - central opening
  93. cornea
    the transparent anterior part of the external coat of the eye covering the iris and the pupil and continuous with the sclera
  94. narcolepsy
    falling asleep 15 minutes after a pleasurable event occurs
  95. all or none law
    a neuron either fires all the way or does not fire at all
  96. epileptic seizures
    referred to as a fit, is defined as a transient symptom of "abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain".
  97. autonomic nervous system
    ANS - a motor nervous system that controls glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
  98. sympathetic
    arouse the body for action
  99. parasympathetic
    calming effect
  100. myelin sheath
    an insulating layer around a nerve fiber; formed by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS
  101. deafness
    any hearing loss, from mild and temporary to complete and irreversible
  102. auricle (pinna)
    the fleshy skin on the outside of the ear, shaped and supported by elastic cartilage except for the earlobe
  103. tympanic membrane
  104. sclera
    white part of the eye
  105. retina
    forms a cup shaped outgrowth of the diencephalon; actually part of the brain
  106. perception
    the process by which an organism detects and interprets information from the external world by means of the sensory receptors
  107. insomnia
    inability to obtain sufficient sleep, esp. when chronic; difficulty in falling or staying asleep; sleeplessness.
  108. memory
    the mental capacity or faculty of retaining and reviving facts, events, impressions, etc., or of recalling or recognizing previous experiences.
  109. language
    includes reading, writing, speaking and understanding words - assigned to different regions of the cerebral cortex
  110. papillae
    a conical or nipple-like structure, such as a lingual papillae of the tongue or papilla of a hair bulb
  111. emmetropic
    a state in which the eye is relaxed and focused on an object more than 20 ft away
  112. lacrimal gland
    size and shape of an almond, nestled in a shallow fossa of the frontal bone in the corner of the orbit, tear secreting gland
  113. color blindness
    • - heredity atteration or lack of one photopsin or another
    • - most common form is red-green color blindness - sex linked recessive trait
  114. skin
    • the body's largest and heaviest organ
    • - 15% of the body's weight
  115. appendicular
    pertaining to the extremities and their supporting skeletal girdles
  116. smooth muscle
    composed of myocytes with a fusiform shape
  117. cardiac muscle
    limited to the heart - pump blood
  118. skeletal muscle
    may be defined as voluntary striated muscle that is usually attached to one or more bones
  119. saggital plane
    divides the body into right and left portions
  120. median plane
    the sagittal plane that divides the body into equal right and left halves - also called midsagittal plane
  121. frontal plane
    • coronal plane
    • - extends vertically but perpendicular to the sagittal plane and divides the body into front and back portions
  122. transverse plane
    • horizontal plane
    • - passes across the body or organ perpendicular to its long axis
  123. cutaneous
    skin glands
  124. mucous membrane
    lines passageways that open to the exterior environment; digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive tracts
  125. serous membrane
    • - composed of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer
    • - produces serous fluid
  126. superior
  127. inferior
  128. anterior
    toward the ventral side
  129. posterior
    toward the dorsal side
  130. medial
    toward the median plane
  131. lateral
    away from the median plane
  132. proximal
    closer to the point of attachment or origin
  133. distal
    farther from the point of attachment or origin
  134. abduction
    a movement of the body part in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body
  135. adduction
    movement in the frontal plane back toward the midline
  136. supination
    movement that turns the palm to face upward
  137. pronation
    movement causing the palm to face downward
  138. circumduction
    one end of the appendage remains fairly stationary while the other end makes a circular motion
  139. inversion
    foot movement that tips the soles medially - facing each other
  140. eversion
    movement that tips the soles laterally - away from each other
  141. protraction
    anterior movement of a body part in the transverse (horizontal) plane
  142. retraction
    posterior movement
  143. mandible
    strongest bone of the skull;only one that can move noticably
  144. maxilla
    largest facial bones; form the upper jaw
  145. endocrine glands
    • lose contact with the surface and have no ducts
    • - hormones- functions as chemical messengers to stimulate cells elsewhere in the body
  146. exocrine glands
    maintian contact with surface by way of a duct
  147. adipose tissue
    a connective tissue composed predominantly of adipocytes - fat
  148. blood
    the fluid that circulates in the principal vascular system of human beings and other vertebrates, in humans consisting of plasma in which the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are suspended.
  149. hyperopia
  150. bunion
    inflammation of the synovial bursa of the great toe, usually resulting in enlargement of the joint and lateral displacement of the toe.
  151. sutures
    immovable joints
  152. hypothalamus
    • the inferior portion of of the diencephalon of the brain, forming the walls and floors of the third ventricle
    • - appetite, thirst, and body temperature
  153. pons
    consists of two pairs of stalks called cerebellar peduncles
  154. meninges
    3 fibrous membranes between the CNS and surrounding bone; dura, arachnoid, and pia mater
  155. fontanels
    spaces between the unfused cranial bones
  156. hallux
    big toe
  157. calcaneous
    the largest tarsal bone
  158. tibia
    the inner of the two bones of the leg, that extend from the knee to the ankle and articulate with the femur and the talus; shinbone
  159. fibula
    the outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg, extending from the knee to the ankle
  160. femur
    bone in the human leg extending from the pelvis to the knee, that is the longest, largest, and strongest in the body; thighbone.
  161. patella
  162. TIA's
  163. concussion
    damage to the brain typically resulting from a blow, often with a loss of consciousness, disturbances of vision or equilibrium, and short term amnesia
  164. cerebral edema
    the accumulation of fluid in and resultant swelling of the brain that may be caused by trauma, a tumor, lack of oxygen at high altitudes, or exposure to toxic substances
  165. lumbar 1
  166. epidural
    anesthesia produced by the injection of an anesthetic into the lumbar area of the spine in the space between the spinal cord and the dura, which eliminates sensation from the point of insertion downward, used esp. in childbirth
  167. acetabulum
    hip socket
  168. carpal tunnel syndrome
    prolonged, repeated movement of the wrists and fingers can cause tissues in the carpal tunnel to become inflamed and swollen
  169. humerus
    upper arm bone
  170. ulna
    • pinky side bone of lower arm
    • longer than other
  171. scapula
    shoulder blade
  172. radius
    • thumb side bone of lower arm
    • shorter
  173. clavicle
  174. sternum
    • bony plate anterior to the heart
    • divided into: manubrium, body, and xiphoid process
  175. xiphoid process
    • inferior end of sternum
    • provides attachment for some abdominal muscles
  176. hyoid bone
    • slender u shaped bone between the chin and larynx
    • does not articulate with any other bones
  177. coccyx
    consists of 4 to 5 small vertebrae, usually fuse by the age of 20-30 into a singular triangular bone
  178. sphenoid
    of or pertaining to the compound bone of the base of the skull, at the roof of the pharynx.
  179. crista galli
    an upright process on the anterior portion of the cribriform plate to which the anterior part of the falx cerebri is attached
  180. cerebral palsy
    muscular incoordination resulting from damage to the motor areas of the brain during fetal development, birth, or infancy - causes include prenatal rubella infection, drugs, or radiation exposure; oxygen deficiency during birth; and hydrocephalus
  181. quadraplegia
    paralysis of all 4 limbs
  182. biceps femoris
    located on the back of the thigh and assisting in bending the leg
  183. trapezius
    a broad, flat muscle on each side of the upper and back part of the neck, shoulders, and back, the action of which raises, or rotates, or draws back the shoulders, and pulls the head backward or to one side
  184. jugular foramen
    a large irregular opening from the posterior cranial fossa that is bounded anteriorly by the petrous part of the temporal bone and posteriorly by the jugular notch of the occipital bone and that transmits the inferior petrosal sinus, the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves, and the internal jugular vein
  185. foramen ovale
    • an opening in the septum between the two atria of the heart that is normally present only in the fetus
    • an oval opening in the greater wing of the sphenoid for passage of the mandibular nerve
  186. foramen magnum
    the large opening in the base of the skull forming the passage from the cranial cavity to the spinal canal
  187. zygomaticus
    a bone on each side of the face below the eye, forming the prominence of the cheek; cheekbone.
  188. rectus abdominus
    a long flat muscle on either side of the linea alba extending along the whole length of the front of the abdomen, arising from the pubic crest and symphysis, inserted into the cartilages of the fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs, and acting to flex the spinal column, tense the anterior wall of the abdomen, and assist in compressing the contents of the abdomen
  189. orbicularis oris
    a muscle made up of several layers of fibers passing in different directions that encircles the mouth and controls most movements of the lips (as compressing, closing, or pursing movements)
  190. biceps brachi
    located in the front of the upper arm and assisting in bending the arm
  191. gluteus maximus
    the broad, thick, outermost muscle of the buttocks, involved in the rotation and extension of the thigh.
  192. achilles tendon
    the tendon joining the calf muscles to the heel bone.
  193. quadriceps femoris
    a muscle of the thigh that extends the leg
  194. triceps brachi
    the large muscle on the back of the upper limb of many vertebrates
  195. pectoralis major
    assisting in drawing the shoulder forward and rotating the arm inward,
  196. intercostals
    pertaining to muscles, parts, or intervals between the ribs.
  197. peristalsis
    the progressive wave of contraction and relaxation of a tubular muscular system, esp. the alimentary canal, by which the contents are forced through the system
  198. atrophy
    a wasting away of the body or of an organ or part, as from defective nutrition or nerve damage.
  199. osteocytes
    a cell of osseous tissue within the bone matrix; a bone cell.
  200. myopia