Bio

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SDW
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54226
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Bio
Updated:
2010-12-13 16:15:10
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verts
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Bio verts
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  1. What replaces the notochord in adult stages of later
    vertebrates?
    • ·
    • Intervertebral discs
  2. Which taxon is the closets relative of vertebrates?
    • ·
    • Chordata (Chordates)
  3. What is the original and later function of pharyngeal gill
    slits in chordates?
    • ·
    • Origninally for feeding and respiration in
    • aquatic verts but parts of ear & head in terr. verts
  4. Prove an example of a countercurrent exchange system in
    vertebrates and explain how it works.
    • ·
    • Used in fish gills where blood flow is opposite
    • water flow, maximizing oxygenation of blood
  5. Define the following terms: myomeres, claspers, myoglobin,
    paedogenesis, neural crest cells, notochord, sessile
    • ·
    • Myomeres: segmented muscles

    • ·
    • Claspers: paired copulatory organs (sharks &
    • rays)

    • ·
    • Myoglobin: respiratory pigment in muscles

    • ·
    • Paedogenesis: changes genes controlling
    • developmental timing

    • ·
    • Neural crest cells:

    • ·
    • Notochord: longitudinal flexible rod used for
    • support and protection

    • ·
    • Sessile: not moving, filter feeders
  6. The group to which salmon and trout belong is…
    • ·
    • Osteichthyes
  7. Name the structure seen in some craniates for detecting
    vibration in water is called…
    • ·
    • Lateral line system
  8. Name
    the 2 major monophyletic groups of fishes
    • ·
    • Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) &
    • Osteichthyes (bony fish)
  9. Briefly explain the origin of jaws and evidence to support
    this.
    • ·
    • Jaw develop from skeletal support of pharyngeal
    • gill slits
  10. What are conodonts and what is their significance?
    • ·
    • Earliest fossile of vertebrates which had
    • mineralized mouth parts (600-300 MYA)
  11. Which came first lungs or swim bladders?
    • ·
    • Swim bladder evolved from lungs
  12. Define and give an example of the term exaptation.
    • ·
    • When a trait evolved for one purpose but is
    • later used for another

    • ·
    • Ex. Fleshy fins of fish used for swimming later
    • used to walk on land
  13. Compare blood-circulation in representative vertebrates:
    amphibian, fish, and archosaurs
    • ·
    • Amphibian: 3 chmb heart, 2 circulatory circuits,
    • mixing of oxygenated and non-oxygenated blood

    • ·
    • Fish: 2 chmb heart, single circuit

    • ·
    • Archosaurs: 3 chmb heart, 2 circuits, no mixing
    • of blood
  14. Name and list the function of each of the membranes of the
    amniotic egg and discuss its significance to amniotes
    • ·
    • Amnion: fluid that cushions embryo

    • ·
    • Allantois: waste elimination + respiration

    • ·
    • Chorion: respiration
  15. The worldwide decline in amphibians (usually frogs) has been
    attributed in part to a fungus. How might this cause frog death?
    • ·
    • Frogs breath through skin and if fungus grows on
    • frog’s skin they may not be able to breath correctly
  16. Why might tuataras derive a higher conservation priority
    than snakes?
    • ·
    • Living fossil with relatives living 220 MYA with
    • only 2 species in lineage that only live in New Zealand
  17. Review 3 problems and solutions vertebrates encountered ion
    moving from the water to the land. What hypotheses have been proposed to
    explain why vertebrates moved onto the land?
    • ·
    • Respiration, support & movement, and water
    • retention

    • ·
    • Hypothesis: 350 MYA drying episode where fish
    • were driven to migrate from pond to pond looking for oxygenated water
  18. Define iridium, amplexus, allometric growth, homeotic genes,
    macroevolution, and evo-devo
    • ·
    • Iridium: rare metal that is linked to meteor
    • that killed dinos

    • ·
    • Allometric growth: when parts of the same
    • organism grow at different rates

    • ·
    • Homeotic genes: genes that determine which parts
    • of the body form at what body parts

    • ·
    • Macroevolution: evolutionary changes above
    • species-level

    • ·
    • Evo-devo: evolutionary development; genes that
    • program development (control the rate, timing, and spatial pattern of changes
    • in an organism’s form as it develops into an adult)
  19. What is the evidence on the bony palate for the presence of
    baleen in modern baleen whales?
    • ·
    • The osstification of the alveolar groove which
    • was for teeth now provides vascularization for baleen
  20. What is the significance of studying tooth genes in adult
    baleen whales that lack teeth?
    • ·
    • Be able to place them correctly on the
    • phylogenetic tree
  21. What major transition did amphibians never make that was
    made by amniotes?
    • ·
    • Internal fertilization
  22. What is Tiktaalik and its significance?
    • ·
    • Transition fossil between fish and tetrapods
  23. What is the basis for the statement extinction is the rule
    rather than the exception. What is different about extinction in today’s world?
    • ·
    • 99% of all species that ever lived are new
    • extinct

    • ·
    • Now rate of extinction is increasing
  24. What
    is the best explanation for the cause of the Cretaceous mass extinction?
    • ·
    • Meteor impact that created a huge dust
    • cloud, blocking sunlight and lowering
    • temps
  25. Define the following terms: endothermy, furculum,
    saltatorial, brachiation, myosin, skeletal muscle
    • ·
    • Endothermy: warm blooded

    • ·
    • Furculum: wishbone of birds

    • ·
    • Saltatorial: motion through jumping or hopping (ex. Kangaroo)

    • ·
    • Brachiation: movement through swinging through
    • trees and branches

    • ·
    • Myosin: motor protein that work with actin to
    • move muscles

    • ·
    • Skeletal muscle: muscles attached to bone used
    • in movement
  26. How does respiration in a mammal differ from that of a bird?
    • ·
    • Birds respiration has only one way in and one
    • way out, and they have 2 air sacs (one being lungs and another used to fill
    • lungs)
  27. How is a bat flight and bird flight similar? How do they
    differ?
    • ·
    • Both use active flying (generate own lift)
  28. Discuss the two hypotheses regarding how powered flight evolved
    in birds. What evidence supports each hypothesis?
    • ·
    • Ground up: feathers evolved first in theropod
    • dinos for thermoregulation and prey capture which later created lift (best
    • supported hypothesis)

    • ·
    • Arboreal (tree down): theropod dinos lived in
    • trees and glided from tree to tree which evolved into powered flight
  29. How is bird respiration similar to that in fishes?
    • ·
    • Concurrent exchange system
  30. Distinguish
    between “passive” and “active” flight
    • ·
    • Passive: use of membranes to help wind carry
    • animals (wind powered)

    • ·
    • Active: use of pectoral muscles to generate lift
    • (self powered)
  31. Explain how a third class lever system work. Provide an
    example in the body
    • ·
    • 3rd class lever: in-force between
    • pivot and out-force

    • ·
    • Ex. Flexion at elbow jt.
  32. How does a digging animal differ from a running animal in
    terms of proportions of their levers and why?
    • ·
    • Digging: Increase force so muscles moved further
    • from joint, decrease length of limb segment

    • ·
    • Running: increase velocity so muscles moved
    • closer , increase length of limb
  33. Describe the adaptations that you would expect to see in a
    swimming animal, scansorial animal, graviportal animal
    • ·
    • Swimming: streamlined bodies, limbs are
    • flippers, loss of hindlimbs

    • ·
    • Scansorial (arboreal): grasping & hooking elements
    • (such as claws, nails), prehensile tail

    • ·
    • Graviportal: heavy body stance and movement
  34. In a cross section of a wing where is the area of greatest
    pressure and therefore highest lift?
    • ·
    • Lowest pressure where air moves fastest (top of
    • wing)

    • ·
    • High pressure under wing creating lift
  35. Give an example of a flightless bird. Why did flightless
    birds evolve on islands?
    • ·
    • Ex. Emu

    • ·
    • Live on islands where there are no predators
    • they need to escape from predators
  36. Define the following terms: imprinting, diphyodont,
    altruism, heterodont, ethology, oviparous, homeothermic, trophoblast, sign
    stimuli, and fitness
    • ·
    • Imprinting: learned behavior where something is
    • imprinted in animal (ex. Geese imprint parent within a few hours or birth and
    • learn to stay near them)

    • ·
    • Diphyodont: characteristic of mammals where
    • there is two successive sets of teeth (baby and permanent teeth)

    • ·
    • Altruism: an unselfish behavior which lowers
    • fitness of individual but increases fitness of pop.

    • ·
    • Heterodont: containing different types of teeth
    • (ex. Carnivorous and herbivorous)

    • ·
    • Ethology: study of animal behavior

    • ·
    • Oviparous: egg laying

    • ·
    • Homeothermic: keeping constant internal temp.

    • ·
    • Trophoblast: cells forming the outer layer of a
    • blastocyst which forms an active barrier between maternal and embryonic tissues
    • (stopes immunological rejection by producing hormones)

    • ·
    • Sign stimuli: a sign that results in the activation
    • of some behavior

    • ·
    • Fitness: the extent to which an organism is
    • adopted to or able to produce offspring in a particular enviornmnet.
  37. Briefly explain the origin of the mammal middle ear bones.
    • ·
    • Evolved from jaw bones or reptiles
  38. How does respiration in a mammal differ from that of a bird?
    • ·
    • Mammals use diaphragm to fill lungs with tidal
    • exhalation and inhalation

    • ·
    • Birds use air sac to fill lungs and have air
    • flow in only one direction
  39. List four synapomorphies that unite all mammals, provide an
    advantage that each of these adaptations provided mammals in contrast to the
    reptilian primitive condition.
    • ·
    • Mammary glands

    • ·
    • Hair

    • ·
    • New jaw joint

    • ·
    • Middle ear bones

    • ·
    • Endothermy

    • ·
    • 4 chambered hearts, with aorta bending to left

    • ·
    • Diaphragm

    • ·
    • Heterodont and diphyodont teeth
  40. Why is egg laying in monotermes not considered an apomorphy
    for the group?
    • ·
    • Because animals before laid eggs before
  41. Describe and distinguish the patterns of reproduction in
    monotremes, marsupial and placental mammals
    • ·
    • Monotremes: lay eggs (oviparous)

    • ·
    • Marsupials: choriovitelline placenta, brief
    • gestation with underdeveloped young

    • ·
    • Placental: chorioallantoic placenta, linger
    • gestation with fairly well developed young
  42. Describe 3 major anatomical/physiological changes in deep
    diving mammals?
    • ·
    • Lungs collapse, alveoli empty

    • ·
    • Higher myoglobin

    • ·
    • Bradycardia (slowed heart rate)

    • ·
    • Redistribution of blood to tissues
  43. Give specific examples of innate vs. learned behavior.
    • ·
    • Innate: spider web structure, and aggression in
    • male stickleback fish

    • ·
    • Learned: Japanese macques washing sand off
    • potatoes
  44. Which 2 groups of mammal echolocate?
    • ·
    • Bats and whales
  45. The mammal-like reptiles that mammals evolved from are…
    • ·
    • Therapsids (200 mya)
  46. Be able to explain the 3 processes that occur in the mammal
    kidney
    • ·
    • Filtration- blood passes through glomerulus and
    • Bowman’s capsule filtrating blood and proteins

    • ·
    • Reabsorpation- water, H, NaCl, HCO3 move into
    • blood

    • ·
    • Secretion- movement of H and K from blood to tubule
  47. What is meant by the ultimate cause of behavior? Give an
    example
    • ·
    • Addresses the evolutionary significance of a
    • behavior

    • ·
    • Ex. Aggression in stickback fish leads to more
    • area where he could fertilize eggs
  48. What is altruistic behavior and how might it be related to
    kin selection?
    • ·
    • Altruistic behavior: a unselfish behavior which
    • hurts the individual but helps the population
  49. What does the following commentary by a noted evolutionary
    biologist refer to: “mankind stood up first and got smart later”
    • ·
    • Became bipedal around 4.4 mya

    • ·
    • Brain enlarged about 2.4 mya
  50. How is estrus different than the menstrual cycle?
    • ·
    • Estrus is going into heat where the female are
    • sexual active (around ovulation)
  51. Do you agree with the statement that Humans and Old World
    monkeys share a most recent common ancestry?
    • ·
    • True, old world monkey are arboreal and
    • terrestrial while new world monkeys are only arboreal
  52. What is meant by the latitudinal diversity gradient and
    where does the greatest diversity occur?
    • ·
    • The closer to the equator the more diversity
  53. What is the greenhouse effect and what can we do about it?
    • ·
    • When the atmosphere allows heat to enter but not
    • to escape raising the temp of the world

    • ·
    • Cutting CO2 emissions and burning of fossil fuels
  54. Define the following terms: sustainable development,
    hominid, bipedalism, biomagnifications, ESA theory
    • ·
    • Sustainable-how biological systems remain
    • diverse and productive over time

    • ·
    • Development- the act or process of growing, progressing,
    • or developing

    • ·
    • Hominid- humans and their relatives

    • ·
    • Bipedalism- to walk on only 2 feet

    • ·
    • Biomagnifications- the increase in concentration
    • of a substance, such as DDT, that occurs in a food chain

    • ·
    • ESA theory-theory of why so diverse near equator
    • that more solar energy, stability of climate (season- season, year-year) the
    • larger the area and the greater the increase in species diversity
  55. What major groups of life are the most common?
    • ·
    • Insects followed by flowering plants
  56. What are 3 ways humans are negatively impacting the
    environment and what are solutions to each of these challenges?
    • ·
    • Habitat destruction/fragmentation

    • ·
    • Introduction of species

    • ·
    • Overexploitation

    • ·
    • Distrupting the food chain
  57. Distinguish between prosimians and anthropoids with an
    example of each group. Are each prosimians monophyletic? Why or why not?
    • ·
    • Anthropoids- monkeys, hominoids-apes, and humans

    • ·
    • Prosimians- primates that are not monkeys or
    • apes, such as lemurs, which is a paraphyletic group
  58. Support or refute the statement monkey are a paraphyletic
    group. Whats wrong with recognizing paraphyletic groups?
    • ·
    • Monkeys are a paraphyletic group but we do not
    • recognize these groups because they are genetically misleading
  59. Does available evidence indicate that Homo florisiensis is a
    new dwarf human or an abnormal (diseased) modern man specimen (homo sapiens)?
    • ·
    • More remains of dwarf humans support that they
    • were a species and not a diseased human
  60. Distinguish between the 2 hypotheses for the origin and
    spread of the human lineage? Which one is best supported by most evidence
    today?
    • ·
    • Multiple origins (asia, Africa, Europe)

    • ·
    • Proto-H. sapiens fromed in Africa 100,000 ya and
    • migrated to the rest of the world

    • o
    • Most supported with mtDNA phylogeny
  61. What is the current human world population?
    • ·
    • 6.77 billion people
  62. Which lineage of great apes is most closely related to
    humans?
    • ·
    • Chimpanzee is our closest relative with 99% id

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