political science exam review

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political science exam review
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2010-12-08 00:38:04
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  1. the kind of democratic politics created by the use of a single member district electoral system
    adversial democracy
  2. a legal system in which an independent judge hears arguments presented by two opposing sides before rendering a decision
    adversial system
  3. individuals, groups, and instutitions--such as family, schools, churches, or labor unions--transmit political values to each generation
    agents of political socialization
  4. the distrbution of a societys wealth among its memobers
    allocation of resources
  5. the opposition to governtments in all forms. the advocates of this ideaology believe that government is unneceessary and inevitably harmful and divisive and that people would coexist peacefully without it
    appellate courts
  6. non democratic government that exercises extensive control or authority over society
    authoritarian systems
  7. a body of law that supersedes other laws
    basic law
  8. an approach to political research that emphasizes observations of individual political behavior as contrasted with approaches that focus on political documents and laws
    behavioralism
  9. an ordering of opinions and attitudes held together by some broader ideological theme or pattern
    belief system
  10. the process of forming a proposal for a governments budget
    budget formation
  11. the government organization usually staffed with officials selected on the basic expertise and experience that implement public policy
    bureaucracy
  12. a person working for the public sector who is appointed on the basic of training and experience
    bureaucrat
  13. personal appeal of an electoral candidate. candidate evaluation may be positive or negative
    candidate evaluation
  14. an ideology advocating private property and minimal governtment
    capitalism
  15. parties that try to appeal to a wide range of social classes and groups hence have a relatively poorly defined policy program or ideaology
    catchall parties
  16. the ability to evoke allegiance and loyalty from citizens or subordinates by virtue of image, speaking skills and generation of emotional responces
    charismatic authority
  17. an individual who manages and corrdinates the impllementation of programs through administrative agencies
    chief administrator
  18. political parties and their supporters who profess a political doctrine usually linked to the catholic church
    christian democrats
  19. the practice of involving citizens in the bureaucratic decision making process
    citizen participation
  20. the body of law pertaining to efforts by private parties to gain compensation for injuries inflicted by other pricate parties
    civil law
  21. body of political philosophy based on the ideas of plato and aristotle, associated with a distrust of democracy and efforts to envision the just state
    classical political philosophy
  22. the authority that a leader enjoys by virtue of possessing the power to force compliance with his or her demands
    coercive authority
  23. set of principles developed centuries ago by british courts in efforts to establish a basic code of fairness for situations in which no statutory law applied
    common law
  24. "marxist ideology" in this stage, societys productive capacity is so undeveloped that each person must consume everything he or she produces to survive, making slavery or other forms of exploitation economically impractical
    communalism
  25. the stage in marxist ideology in which "true" human history begins; in this stage technological development has advanced to the point at which scarcity of resources no longer exists and there is no class conflcit or exploitation
    communism
  26. citizens tend to agree on basic political procedures as well as values and general goals of the politcal system
    consensual cultures
  27. highly polarized by fundamnetal differences over those issues
    conflictual cultures
  28. an approach to political life that sees traditional values as important in solving social problems (Edmund Burke)
    conservation
  29. irregular, nonconstitutional removal of head of state by a small group; usually the military
    Coup d'Etat
  30. body of law pertaining to the prosecution and punishment of those accused of crimes
    criminal law
  31. the person accused of a crime or sued by a plaintiff
    defendant
  32. a system of government by the "citizens"
    democracy
  33. a movement in public policy most widespread in the US and Great Britain in the 1980s that involved removing or reducing regulations on private sector activity
    deregulation
  34. communications and negotiations among the national leaders regarding matters of foreign policy
    diplomacy
  35. idea that economic forces govern change in the nature of societies
    economic determinism
  36. approach to international political economoy that focuses on importance of national interest and power
    economic nationalism
  37. approach to international political economy associated with marxist-leninist thinking' emphasizes persistent economic inequalitites separating poor and rich countries and focuses on how state economic systems produce a structure of dependency and inequality
    economic structuralism
  38. the idea that a single generally unified elite dominates society
    elite theory
  39. effort by a chief executive to initiate, coordinate, and energize government activities in a time of crisis
    emergency leadership
  40. ideology that emphasizes extreme appeals to national unity, hatred of foreigners and ethnic minorities and complete obedience to the state
    fascism
  41. idealogy that advocates equal rights for females
    feminism
  42. second stage in marxist ideology; land ownership becomes basis for political power and farm workers are exploited by those who own land
    feudalsim
  43. beauricratic principle holding that agency officals should have clearly established areas of activity or specialization making it possible to determine who is responsible for any given decision or program
    fixed jurisdictions
  44. individual who enjoys benefits of collective effort without contributing to it
    free rider
  45. differene between men as a group and woman as a group with respect to some specific criterion
    gender gap
  46. generation of young people who were born in the last two decades of the 20th centurary
    generation Y
  47. the people or organizations that make, enforce, and implement political decisions for society
    government
  48. basic tasks that governments perform in healthy developed political systems
    government functions
  49. group of citizens who determine whether there is sufficeint evidence to charge a person with a crime
    grand jury
  50. political or social system in which people have clearly understood ranks, from a governing elite down to the lowest ranks of society
    hierarchial
  51. bureucratic principle holding that clear lines of super and subordinate status should exist in organizations
    hierarchy
  52. principle that all people are entitled to certain fundamental freedoms and privelages
    human rights
  53. approach to internationals relations holding that wars are caused by evil and ignorance and that they can be avoided by nurturing a spirit of international community and justice
    idealism
  54. more or less coherent system of political thinking. a vision of society as it should be
    ideaology
  55. measure of how low a society is shared among its members
    income distribution
  56. way of thinking that emphasizes individual interest, needs, and rights in contrast to social or communal interests needs and rights
    individualism
  57. (ICT) wide range of new electronic information and communication innovations including internet, podcasts, text msg, etc
    information and communicaiton technology
  58. process of expressing concerns and problems as demands for government action
    interest articulation
  59. organization that attempts to influence public policy in a specific area of importance to its members
    interest group
  60. body of laws consisting of treaties and traditionally recognized rights and duties pertaining to relations among states
    international law
  61. idea that interest groups, legislatives committees, and bureaucracies in a gives policy area engage in continuing interaction and they act together to perpetuate policies and programs resisting change and control
    iron triangles
  62. extremely devout movement within the islamic religion whose members believe in a traditional and litteral interpretation of the quaran
    islamic fundamentalist
  63. principle holding judges should follow their own values deciding how to interrpret statutes and provisions of basic law
    judicial activism
  64. principle holding that judges should be reluctant to overturn legislative or executive laws and decisions
    judicial restraint
  65. power of courts to overturn or void actions of laws that they feel are unlawful and unfair
    judicial review
  66. quality of being righteous, fair, and deserved
    justice
  67. process through which a political system attracts its leadership
    leadership recruitment
  68. policy stressing tolerance for divers lifestyles and opinions and demanding public assistance for those in need
    liberalism
  69. ideaology with minimum government and maximum individual liberty
    libertarianism
  70. efforts by groups or individuals to influence public officals through formal and informal contacts with thim
    lobbying
  71. apporach to international political economy holding that states pursue their national interests in making international economic policies, especially those pertaining to trade
    mercantilism
  72. problems and issues not addressed by a political system
    non decisions
  73. nuclear war is so horrible that nations avoid it
    nuclear terror
  74. idea that parlimanet enjoys soverign power
    parliamentary supremacy
  75. citizens sense of attachment to a political party
    party identification
  76. practice of selecting buraurcratic officials on basis of hteir political support for elected officals with power to appoint them
    patronage
  77. political party whose primary purpose is to futher the politcal career of one person, the leader
    personalistic party
  78. person who brings a legal action against another person in a civil suit
    plantiff
  79. idea that there are many centers of political power in society
    pluralism
  80. idea that nations become modern by acquiring certain capacities and capabilites
    political development
  81. pattern of individual attitudes and oreintations toward politcs among the members of a political system
    political culture
  82. study of impact of government on economic conditions including analysis of alternative public policies and different system of governemnt
    political economy
  83. organization that unites people in an effort to win government office and therby influence or control government policy
    political party
  84. process of making collective decisions in a community society or group through the application of influnce of power
    politics
  85. distinctive set of political orientations common to many individuals in industrial democracies who ewre politically socialized during the era of postwar affluence
    postmaterialism
  86. advocates of this can be found in many disciplines. it is a reaction to wat its advocates see as excessive faith in certainty and objectivity of scientific method
    postmodernism
  87. approach to political theory distinguished by its application of economic principles particularly assumption that indiciduals seek thier own interest in making political decisions
    rational choice
  88. authority that a leader enjoys when his or her actions are consistent with established legal principles
    rational-legal-authority
  89. approach to international realations that emphasize the role of national interest in explaining causes of war and conflict
    realism
  90. process of redrawing bounderies of legislative districts
    redistricting
  91. the process of applying governments rules to individual cases
    rule adjudication
  92. parties that are more likely to support existing political and economic systems and defend traditional values such as relgion
    right wing political parties
  93. process of implementing or carrying out policy decisions
    rule execution
  94. process of establishing laws, orders, edicts, regulations, and other authoritative acts by government
    rule making
  95. electoral system with one representive in legislature "winner take al"
    single member districts
  96. fourth and final stage of "prehistory" in Marxist ideaology; state is governed in the interests of the workers
    socialism
  97. the body of law created by acts of the legislature
    statutory law
  98. a form of authoritarian government in which the government exercises near total control over all forms of political activity and organized societal activity
    totalitarian goveernment
  99. authority that derives from a leaderships emboidment of long standing widely accepted social and political conditions
    traditional authority
  100. 2 basic levels of courts in most judicial systems
    trial and appelate courts
  101. arrangement of public services to provide a basic standard of living to all members of society who dont have money
    welfare state

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