What does matter tend to be when thermal energy is low relative to the intermolecular forces?
They tend to be either liqud or solid.
Gas has what density, shape,volume, and strength of intermolecular forces?
It has a low density, indefinite shape, indefinite volume, and weak strength.
What does matter tend to be when thermal energy is high relative to the intermolecular forces?
They tend to be gaseous.
Liquid has what density, shape, volume, and strength of intermolecular forces?
It has a high density, indefinite shape, definite volume, and moderate strength.
Solid has what density, shape, volume, and strength of intermolecular forces?
It has high density, definite shape, definite volume, and strong strength.
What are crystalline solids?
They are composed of atoms or molecules that are arranged in a three-dimensional array.
What are amorphous solids?
They are composed of atoms or molecules that have no long-range order.
Do liquids and solids have a high or low melting and boiling points?
They have high melting and boiling points.
Do gases have high or low melting and boiling points?
They have low melting and boiling points.
Describe the Coulomb's Law.
In the Coulomb's Law, the potential energy (E) of two oppositely charged particles (q1 and q2) decreases (becomes more negative) with increasing magnitude of charge and with decreasing separation (r).
What is the equation for the Coulomb's Law?
What type of forces can potentially occur in all substances?
Dispersion forces, dipole to dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding can potentially occur in all substances.
What type of forces can only occur in mixtures?
Ion to dipole forces can only occur in mixtures.
Dispersion forces are the result of what?
They are the result of the flunctuations in the electron distribution within molecules or atoms.
What is the fleeting charge of separation called?
It is called the instantaneous dipole or temporary dipole.
The dipole to dipole force exist in what kind of molecules?
They exist in polar molecules.
Permanent dipoles interact with what?
They interact with the permanent dipoles of neighboring molecules.
The polarity of molecules composing liquids are needed where?
In determining the miscibility (ability to mix without separating into two states) of liquids.
What is the result of the large electronegativity difference between hydrogen and any of the electronegative elements?
It causes the hydrogen atom to have a fairly partial positive charge while N, F, and O have a fairly partial negative charge.
Hydrogen bond is not a ____________ but an _____________ instead.
chemical bond that occurs between atoms within a molecule; intermolecular force that occur between molecules
When does ion to dipole force occur?
It occurs when an ionic compound is mixed with a polar compound.
What is the strongest intermolecular force?
Ion to dipole force is the strongest overall. Hydrogen bonding is the strongest compared to the other two in its category
Dispersion force increase with _______ molar mass.
What is the tendency of liquids to minimize their surface area called?
Surface tension of a liquid is _____________.
the energy required to increase the surface area by a unit amount.
What is viscosity?
The resistance of a liquid to flow.
What is the unit for viscosity and it's defined as?
poise (P); 1g/cm*s
Viscosity is _______ in substances with stronger intermolecular force because if molecules are more strongly attached to each other, they do not flow around each other as freely.
Viscosity depends on?
molecular shape and temperature.
What is capillary action?
The ability of a liquid to flow against gravity up a narrow tube.
What are the two part of capillary action?
cohesive forces- attraction between molecules; adhesive forces- attraction between molecules and surface
What is the transition from liquid to gas called?
What is the transition from gas to liquid called?
What are liquids that vaporize easily called? the ones that don't?
What is heat of vaporization?
The amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of a liquid to gas.
When a system in dynamic equilibrium is disturbed,_____________.
the system responds so as to minimize the disturbance and return to a state of equilibrium.
The boiling point of a liquid is ___________________.
The temperature at which its vapor pressure equals the external pressure.
The normal boiling point of a liquid is ____________.
The temperature at which its vapor pressure equals to 1 atm.
P vap= B exp (-deltaH vap/RT)
What is the transition from solid to gas called?
What is the transition from gas to solid called?
What is the transition from solid to liquid called?
melting or fusion
What is the transition form liquid to solid called?
What is heat of fusion?
The amount of heat required to melt 1 mol of a solid.
What is a phase diagram?
It is a map of the state or phase of a substance as a function of pressure (y axis) and temperature (x axis)
1 km= _____m
1 mm=_______ m
1 km=_____ mi
1 m=_____ in=______ yd
39.37 inches; 1094 yards
1 ft=______ cm
1 in=_______ com
2.54 centimeters (exact)
1 kg=_____ lb
1 lb=_____ g
1 oz=_____ g
1 L=____ mL=______ cm^3
1 L=_____ qt
1 gal=____ L
Convert from Celsius to Kelvin
Convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius
Convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit
exa- symbol; multiplier
peta- symbol; multiplier
tera- symbol; multiplier
giga- symbol; multiplier
mega- symbol; multiplier
kilo- symbol; multiplier
deci- symbol; multiplier
centi- symbol; multiplier
milli- symbol; multiplier
micro- symbol; multiplier
nano- symbol; multiplier
pico- symbol; multiplier
femto- symbol; multiplier
atto- symbol; multiplier
What is accuracy?
How close the measured value is to the actual value.
What is precision?
How close a series of measurements are to each other or how reproducible they are.
Father of Atomic Theory
Charge to Mass Ratio
Marie Curie, P. Curie, and Henri Becquerel
Plum Pudding Model
Solubility Rules (Generally soluble)
Group 1A ions and NH4+, nitrates, acetates, most perchlorates, chlorides/bromides/iodides (except Ag+,Pb2+, Cu+, and Hg2 2+), fluorides (except Pb2+ and Group 2A), sulfates (except Ca2+, Sr2, Ba2, Ag+, and Pb2+)
most metal hydroxides and oxides (except Group 1A, NH4+, Sr2+, Ba2+, and Tl+), carbonates and phosphates (except Group 1A and NH4+), sulfides (except Group 1A, 2A, NH4+), and sulfites (except Group 1A, NH4+)