RNR chapter 20 review

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RNR chapter 20 review
2010-12-08 10:59:07
Living teh envoronment chapter

review for chap 20
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  1. What is waterh pollution?
    any chemical biological or physical change in water quality that harms living organisms or make water unsuitable for desired uses
  2. distinguish between point sources and nonpoint sources of water pollution and give an example of each.
    • point sources- when water pollution come from a single source
    • nonpoint when it comes from larger or dispersed source
  3. list major types of water pollutants and give an exampleof each
    • Infiectious agents (bacteria viruses parasites)
    • Oxygen demanding wastes (biodegradable animal wastes and plant debris)
    • Plant nutrients (nitrates )
    • fOrganic chemicals (oli gasoline plastics pestocides)
    • Inorganic chemicals (acids bases salts metal compounds)
    • sediments (soil silt)
    • Heavy metals (lead mercury arsenic)
    • Thermal (heat)
  4. list dieases transmitted to humans by polluted water
    • Typhiod fever from bacteria
    • Cholera, Bacterial dysentery, Entrites, infectious hepatis (type B) from Viruses
    • Amoebic dysentery from Parsitic protozoa
    • Schistosomisis from parsitic worms
  5. describe chemical and biological methods that scientists use to measure water quality
    • chemical methods are used to determine the presence and concentrations of specific organic chemicals in polluted water
    • biological methods is using indicator species by taking plants from the pollutied system and studying them or observing bottom dwelling species
  6. describe how streams can cleanse themselves and how these cleansing processes can be overwhelmed
    in a flowing stream the breakdown of biodegradable waist by bactiera depletes dissolved oxygen and creates an oxygen sag curve, this reduces or eliminates population of organisism with high oxygen requirments untill the stream is clensed of oxygen demading waists
  7. describe the state stream pollution in developed and developing countires
    • in developed countries lawes require industries to reduce or eliminate their point source discharge of harmful chemicals into surface waters
    • in developing countries it is a growing problem most of the rivers that are heavily polluted run through developing countires who cant afford to build waist treatment plans most of these countreis discharge 80 to 90% of their untreated sewer discharge goes directly into the river
  8. describe the pollution problems of the ganges river, which runs through part of india
    the hindu cermonies of buring courps and throwing them into the river to insure their soul a trip to heaven pollutes the air and the river, especially if the corpes is not burned compleatly when it decomposes it suckes up oxygen in the river. they also drink and bathe in the river as part of their cermoines
  9. give two reasons why lakes cannot cleanse themselves as readily as streams can
    • lakes often contain stratified layers that undergo litterl vertical mixing
    • they have little or no flow so flusing can take 1 to 100 years compaired to seven days and weeks for streams
  10. distinguish between eutrophication and cultural eutrophication. list threee ways to prevent or reduce each
    • Eutrophication is the name given to the naturla nutrients enrichment of a shallow lake, estuary or slow moving stream mostly from runoff of plant nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates from surround land
    • Cultural etrophacation is greatly acceleartated input of plant nutrients caused by human activietes to a lake (farmland, animal feedlots etc)
    • ways to reduce
    • use advance waist trement to remove nitrate and phosphtes before waiste water enters the lake
    • clean up lake
    • stop excessive inputs of plant nutrients and the lake will recover on its own
  11. Describe pollution of the Great Lakes and the progress made in reducing this pollution.
    • were vulnerable to pollution from point and nonopoint sources they surffered from server cultural eutrophication huge fish kills, and contamination from bacteira and a viratiey of toxic industral waistes
    • spent 20 billion, decreased algal blooms, increased dissovled oxygen levelts and theseimprovements occured because of new or upgraged sweage tremeent plants better treatmetns of industral waistes and bans on use of detergents household cleanters and water condictionars that contain phosphates- all issued because of bottom-up citizen pressure
  12. Explain why groundwater cannot cleanse itself very well. What are the major sources of groundwater contamination in the United States?
    when groundwater becomes contiamitated it cant cleanse degradable waist as quickly as flwoing surface water it flows too slow and contaminates are not diluted and dispersed effecitivly and it usualyl has much lower concentatiosn of dissolved oxygen (which helps to decompose many contaminates( there is also smaller populations of decomposing bacteria and usually cold tempatures so slows down chemical reaction to waistes
  13. Describe the threat from arsenic in groundwater. List ways to prevent or clean up groundwater contamination.
    • arsenic is toxic its like to cause thousands of premature deaths from cancer of skin, bladder ,and lung
    • transforming common mineral similar to rust into powder of tiny nanocrystals and using it to purify drinking water could greatly reduce the theat of arsenic and it would cause a few cents a day
  14. Describe U.S. laws for protecting drinking water quality.
    US requires the EPA to establish nationial drinking water standeards
  15. Describe the environmental problems caused by the widespread use of bottled water
    plastic water bottles and green hosue gasses and other air pollutants are emitted by the fossil fueles burned to make and deliever the bottles of water
  16. How are coastal waters and deeper ocean waters polluted?
    because about 40% of the world's populatioin lives on or near the coast, in deeper waters the oceans can dilute, disperse and degrade large amounts of raw sewage and otehr types of degradable pollutians
  17. What causes harmful algal blooms and what are their harmful effects?
    • runoffs of sewage and agricultural wastes into coastal waters that introduce large quanaties of nitrate.
    • harmeful because at least 200 oxygen depleated zones form in costal waters around the world these are called dead zones no or few fish
  18. Describe oxygen depletion in the northern Gulf of Mexico
    dead zones
  19. How serious is oil pollution of the oceans, what are its effects, and what can be done to reduce such pollution?
    • for mairing life to recover form oil spills it takes 3 years for ssalt marshes 10 years it is slick ans washes on beaches and have major impacts on coastal residents
    • ways to prevent and reduce pollution is reduce production from land and air from streams emptying into these waters
  20. Describe
    how primary sewage treatment and secondary sewage treatment are used to help
    purify water.
    First, primary sewage treatment, a physical process, uses screens and tanks to remove large floating objects, rocks, and sand. Next, secondary treatment, a biological process, uses bacterial to breakdown biodegradable materials, but does not kill pathogens.

    Finally, chlorination,ozone, or UV is used to kill pathogens and some viruses. A major problem is inadequate secondary treatment facilities in numerous cities and untreated storm water runoff systems, which allows pollutants to be discharged into coastal waters, lakes, and streams.
  21. How would Peter Montague improve conventional sewage treatment? What is a
    composting toilet system?
    compositing toilet system conberts nutrient rich human fecal matter into a soil-like humus that can be used as fertilizer supplement. about once a yar venders collect the humus and sell it as soil conditioner this process returnes plant nutrients in human waist in the soil and thus minics the naturla chemical cycling, also reducceds the need for comercial inoraganic fertilizers
  22. Describe
    how wetlands can be used to treat sewage. Describe the use of living machines
    to treat sewage.
  23. List
    six ways to prevent and reduce water pollution. List five steps you can take to
    reduce water pollution.
    • fertilize garden and yard plants with manure or compost instead of commerical inorganic fertilizer
    • minimize use of petsicides especially near bodies of water
    • prefent yard wastes from entering storm drains
    • do not use water freshners in toilets
    • do not flush unwanted meds down the toiet
    • do not pour pesticides paints solvents oil antifreeze or otehr products containing harmful chemicals down the drain or on the ground
  24. Describe
    connections between the clean up of Lake Washington (Core Case Study) and the
    four scientific principles of sustainability.