ANT final

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ANT final
2010-12-08 07:26:55

Final review
Show Answers:

  1. Sign systems and the meanings that are associated with them are:
    b) situated, that is to say they are culture specific
  2. In the film on Body Language that we saw three heads of state sitting together. Which of the three exhibited the most powerful body language?
    b) Franklin D Roosevelt
  3. While there are many definitions and descriptions of culture, the lecturer contrasted two general types, those dealing with:
    b) behavior vs a mental construction of reality
  4. A meme can be seen as
    c) a replicator of cultural information transmitted from one person to another
  5. Most of the Nacirema people can be said to live
    c) south of the Canadian border
  6. Which of the following is not an expression of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:
    a) “it is possible to translate anything from one language into another”
  7. Linguistic competence is to performance as:
    c) language is to speech
  8. If it weren’t for language:
    NONE OF THE ABOVE (we would all be able to fly; we would be unable to communicate; we would be unable to remember anything)
  9. Words do not really possess meaning:
    b) it would be more accurate to say that people possess meaning and that words elicit these meanings
  10. There are three major sign types according to the lecturer:
    c) icons, indexes, and symbols
  11. According to Hymes scheme, the speech act can be seen to have
    c) 7 components and 9 functions
  12. Shared interaction, shared knowledge, and shared attitudes are three different foci for definitions of:
    d) speech community
  13. People in dense speech networks
    b) have more frequent contact and are likely linked by more than one type of bond
  14. We learn:
    • a) about other people through what they say and how they say it
    • b) about ourselves through the ways that other people react to what we say
    • c) about our relationship with others through the give and take of communicative interaction
    • d) all of the above
  15. Language is, according to Burling,
    b) pervasively conventional and arbitrary
  16. Burling feels that humans have
    a) more control over our language than over our gesture-calls
  17. Burling’s “quotable gestures” are
    c) digital gestures (gestural analogs of vocal segregates)
  18. Which of the following is/are not a “design feature of language” from Hockett’s article:
    • b) rhythmic functionality
    • c) blending
  19. Arbitrariness with respect to language structure generally means that
    c) the relationship between the message carrier and the message is independent of physical or geometric resemblance between the two
  20. In comparing the genetic code in DNA, where 4 kinds of nucleotides are combined into sixty-four kinds of codons which can be strung into an unlimited number of genes, Stephen Pinker is referring to
    c) the fact that language makes infinite use of finite media
  21. Robin Dunbar makes the point(s) that
    • a) neocortex and group size predicts a human group size of about 150
    • b) social grooming in non-human primate societies takes up 20-30 percent of their day
    • c) with humans an increase in group size came with a shift in the mechanism for social bonding d) all of the above
  22. Robin Dunbar says that:
    • a) gossip allows for the coordination of social relationships
    • b) language may have evolved in the context of social bonding between females
    • c) language lets us categorize people into types, so we can relate to them without having to take days to work out the basis of a relationship
    • d) all of the above
  23. Who wrote the article in our reader called The Orality of Language?
    c) Walter J. Ong
  24. Voice set, voice qualities, and vocal segregates are part of the communicative system known as:
    d) paralanguage
  25. Vocal segregates include:
    • a) pause fillers
    • b) attention getting expressions (e.g. harrumph)
    • c) disapproval sounds (e.g. tsk tsk)
    • d) cold signaling sounds (e.g. brrr)
    • e) all of the above
  26. Kinesics in communication includes:
    • a) gesture
    • b) posture
    • c) facial expression
    • d) eye contact
    • e) walking
    • f) dancing
    • g) all of the above
  27. The study of haptics in communication includes:
    b) touch
  28. Adam Kendon and others have classified gestures and included the following categories:
    • a) emblems
    • b) illustrators
    • c) regulators
    • d) all of the above
  29. The phonemes of a language are:
    • a) the fundamental organizational units of a language’s sound system
    • b) minimum meaningful units of sound in that language
    • c) classes of allophones, the allophones of each phoneme being in complementary distribution
    • d) all of the above
  30. Prosodic features of language, also called suprasegmentals, operate primarily on the vowel nucleus, often affect or differentiate meanings, and include
    • a) stress
    • b) length
    • d) pitch
    • g) a, b & d
  31. Syntax is (the study of):
    b) sentences and their construction
  32. Close matching between movements of a speaker and movements of a listener is called
    a) interactional synchrony
  33. Whereas high-status people tend to enlarge the appearance of their bodies, low-status individuals tend to limit their body images by lowering their heads and keeping their legs together and their arms close to their bodies.
    a) This is true
  34. One expression of the Sapir – Whorf hypothesis is that
    a) "the worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different labels attached"
  35. Whorf contrasted Hopi with English and concluded that Hopi and English have different ways of conceptualizing:
    • a) time
    • b) number
    • d) duration
    • g) a, b & d
  36. People bring to their social encounters a repertory of knowledge and understandings of their culture as expressed through their language. Some, but never all, of this will also be in the repertories of their interlocutors. This repertory has been called
    e) cultural presuppositions
  37. The word ‘man’ as in the English sentence “Man is the only creature having language” is:
    • b) semantically unmarked for gender and number
    • d) morphologically unmarked for gender number
    • g) b & d
  38. When one says “This business needs some new blood” (and it isn’t someone in a bloodbank speaking), then they are using a figure of speech known as
    b) metonymy
  39. Of three presumed basic types of writing systems, it is generally thought that they evolved in the following order
    c) logographic, syllabic, alphabetic
  40. Which sociologically constructed model has literacy distinguishing between “primitive” and “civilized”?
    c) autonomous
  41. One “invented” literacy is that of :
    d) Sequoya’s syllabary
  42. B.L. Whorf began his essay on the relationship of language to habitual behavior by explaining how
    b) some fires have been caused because the words ‘empty’ and ‘stone’ suggest to many persons that combustability is not a present danger
  43. Whorf claims that
    d) “ten days” cannot be objectively experienced
  44. According to Whorf, the Hopi microcosm seems to have analyzed reality largely in terms of
    b) events (or “eventing”), referred to in two ways, objective and subjective
  45. People of the Trobriand Islands, according to Dorothy Lee, probably:
    • b) apprehend reality nonlineally in contrast to our own lineal phrasing
    • e) appear to favor pattern over lineality in their perception of reality
    • f) apparently do not value lineal apprehension of reality
    • h) b, e & f
  46. Trobriand language
    • a) has no adjectives
    • b) has no tenses
    • c) describe their village as “aggregate of bumps”
    • f) a, b & c
  47. Lakoff and Johnson view the following as conceptual metaphor based on linguistic evidence:
    a) “argument is war”
  48. Levinson calls the widespread presumption in cognitive sciences that language is essentially innate:
    a) “simple nativism”
  49. John Hotchkiss sees children as
    c) “nonpersons” – and therefore less likely to be seen as invading privacy or compromising secrecy
  50. When a child in Teopisca returns from an errand:
    a) s/he is extensively debriefed by an adult of the household to see what s/he has learned on the errand
  51. In the film Do You Speak American: Out West, Cliff Nass said that hearing a mismatch between one’s voice (including accent) and one’s physical appearance leads to
    d) less trust
  52. One of several definitions of context we have discussed is
    b) everything necessary to understand a message
  53. In the film American Tongues it was maintained that a person’s accent is
    b) mostly phonological
  54. The film American Tongues illustrated the fact that there are
    c) at least one person in Boston exploit his accent to his own advantage
  55. Transition to sentential speech in some hypothetical pre-hominid ancestor must have involved:
    • b) gradual loss of emotional loading in vocal messages
    • d) gradual increase in vocal coding of contextual variables
    • e) b & d
  56. Locating contextual items without actually naming them is done by members of a speech category called
    a) deictics
  57. The following are demonstrable characteristics of form and function in language:
    • b) a variety of forms can serve the same function
    • c) the same form can serve a variety of functions
    • d) On occasion use of a form for one function excludes its use for certain others
    • g) b, c & d
  58. The greater the psychological difference, or distance, between communicating individuals, the greater the need for
    b) autonomous speech
  59. Back-channel cues are
    d) signals of active listenership
  60. Reciprocal use of TLN or FN in the US references the social dimension of
    c) solidarity
  61. Use of first name in US address underlyingly means
    a) either intimacy or condescension
  62. Non-reciprocal use of the 2nd person pronoun in Romance languages and China stresses:
    f) none of the above
  63. An illocutionary act is the act performed in saying something; here the focus is on:
    a) the speaker’s intentions
  64. Broadcast transmission and directional reception of messages, according to Hockett is characteristic of:
    c) most animals
  65. Hockett singles out the ability in a communicative system of meaningless elements to pattern and in combination to form meaningful messages as important in human language. He calls this:
    e) openness (productivity)
  66. In conversation analysis an adjacency pair is considered to be:
    b) linked utterances based on turn taking
  67. Greetings, compliments, and condolences can all be thought of as
    • a) routines
    • b) creators of social solidarity
    • c) negotiators of social solidarity
    • d) face threat acts
    • h) a – d
  68. Solicitudes tend to
    • c) be formulaic
    • d) use imperatives
    • e) convey only temporary good wishes to the addressee
    • g) c, d & e
  69. H.P. Grice articulated four important maxims regarding conversational ideals that can be summarized as maxims of
    a) quantity, quality, relevance, and manner
  70. Lakoff suggests that when rules of pragmatic competence conflict,
    a) politeness usually supercedes clarity
  71. To Brown and Levinson politeness is concern with face, which involves
    • a) an individual's self-esteem
    • b) the public image every person wants to claim for him/herself
    • c) the desire to be approved or respected
    • d) the desire to be unimpeded in one’s actions
    • e) the desire not to be imposed upon
    • f) all of the above
  72. Criticism, accusation, insults, contradictions, and boasts are said by Brown and Levinson to be FTAs to
    b) speaker’s negative face
  73. Three social factors for speaker selection of linguistic mechanism to accomplish an FTA include
    c) power, solidarity, and degree of imposition entailed by FTA
  74. Close-knit social networks are more typical of
    c) working-class communities
  75. Social class systems are based on:
    • a) conflict
    • e) differentiation
    • f) inequality
    • i) a, e & f
  76. From his study of postvocalic r, Labov concluded that this variable is:
    • a) a linguistic marker of social stratification
    • d) statistically more prominent in the speech of higher classes
    • f) a and d
  77. Labov concluded that crossover behavior is
    • b) a reliable indicator of linguistic change
    • e) evidence of linguistic insecurity
    • g) b & e
  78. Labov has conducted studies indicating that members of all classes increase their use of -r as context focused more attention on pronunciation, showing that they are aware of the same general norm giving value to -r pronouncing
    a) true
  79. In Scotland, Ronald Macauley, in a study of 5 phonological features, concluded that
    • a) speaker use of prestige variants was consistently ranked with their occupational stratification
    • b) women employed more prestige pronunciations than men of their age group
    • e) a and b
  80. One of the surprising findings of Jacquelyn Lindenfeld is that speakers are rarely able to manipulate their use of language in order to emphasize their class identity in different speech situations
    b) false
  81. According to Bernstein,
    • a) because members of different social classes use different modes of expression, they develop different patterns of thought and thus understand their world in different ways
    • b) one of the effects of the class system is to limit access to elaborated codes
    • c) use of explicit references in elaborated codes can allow speakers to think about meanings and relationships separate from their immediate context, potentially permitting them to enter into a reflexive relationship to the social order
    • d) all of the above
  82. African American Vernacular English is, according to Labov:
    c) a subsystem of English with a distinct set of phonological and syntactic rules that are now aligned in many ways with the rules of other dialects of English
  83. AAVE exhibits
    • a) a highly elaborated aspect system, quite different from other dialects of English
    • b) a tendency to delete postvocalic r
    • c) a tendency to delete the copula wherever it can be contracted in Standard English
    • d) a tendency to reduce word final consonant clusters
    • i) a , b, c & d
  84. In AAVE (or Ebonics)
    b) women tend to retain the copula with greater frequency than men
  85. John Rickford in his article Suite for Ebony and Phonics said that
    b) all languages have dialects
  86. Mock Spanish as Rusty Barrett characterizes it,
    • a) has semantic pejoration of Spanish words
    • b) uses obscene Spanish in place of English equivalents
    • d) overuses Spanish grammatical elements
    • e) has hyper Anglicization (parodic pronunciation)
    • i) a, b, d & e
  87. Females in our society often blunt a direct statement by means of
    • c) hedge words
    • d) tag
    • i) c & d
  88. Several studies show women's greater use of standard pronunciations, and quicker and more marked style shifting to the standard in increasingly formal speech contexts. One explanation says this is due to
    c) women’s linguistic insecurity reflecting their social insecurity in a hierarchical system of gender in which they are relegated to second place
  89. When Trudgill asked them about their pronunciation, women tended to claim greater use of standard pronunciation than actually occurred in their speech whereas men tended to claim greater use of the nonstandard than actually occurred in their speech. Trudgill explained this saying that
    • a) covert prestige is given to male behavior that rejects the standard
    • b) overt prestige is given to female behavior that adopts the standard
    • f) a & b
  90. In general, women use
    • a) more dynamic intonational contours than do men
    • b) a wider range of pitches within their repertory than do men
    • c) a more rapid and marked shift in volume and velocity than do men
    • d) all of the above
  91. Dynamic intonational patterns are interpreted by American English speakers as indicating
    b) emotionality and natural impulses
  92. In Yana, a California Indian language Sapir identified men’s speech and women’s speech.
    • a) men’s speech is only used by men, and only to other men
    • b) women’s speech is used by women to men and women and by men to women
    • c) men’s speech is marked with respect to women’s speech in most cases
    • d) men’s speech uses more elaborate forms than that of women
    • g) a – d
  93. Falsetto voice is employed as a respect device used by Carib women while raised pitch is used as a respect device by men.
    b) false
  94. The nerd according to Mary Bucholtz is
    • a) ideologically gendered and racialized
    • d) characterized by a set of practices, stances, and engagements
    • e) markedly hyperwhite
    • f) a, d & e
  95. The film To Make the Balance is about
    b) how justice is officially administered in a Mexican village
  96. The film Brain Sex singled out the following as particularly important to gender
    c) hormones
  97. In Madagascar, where Malagasy is spoken,
    a) women dominate situations where directness is called for
  98. The film Brain Sex claims that there is such a thing as
    a) a person with only one x chromosome
  99. Among the Kuna, according to Sherzer, each gender has occasion to employ elaborate rhetorical styles, replete with metaphor and symbolic allusions, and each uses chanting and rhythmic patterns or tunes in certain contexts, and both men and women speak directly and confidently when voicing their opinions.
    a) true
  100. The following pertain(s) to the desert dwellers studied by Grimshaw and Youssef
    • a) news and companionship are highly valued in the wilderness
    • b) strangers may be or become enemies
    • c) sensitivity to cues of identity has high survival value
    • d) adult males must learn complex rules for the interpretation of verbal and other behaviors in the accomplishment of greetings and information exchange
    • e) all of the above
  101. One calls for an individual’s attention by using
    c) vocatives
  102. Because data presented to children by experience is replete with incomplete sentences, ungrammatical utterances, and other erroneous data, we now know that children learn their language from an inborn grammatical template that requires the child to learn what language it is exposed to, but not to analyze the data of experience, according to Susan Blum.
    b) false
  103. As children mature, their linguistic abilities include
    d) progressive differentiation of forms and meanings
  104. Calling attention to contextual features by locating them with respect to the speaker is known as
    b) deixis
  105. The process of language learning is best viewed as
    a) maturational
  106. Children can generally move their bodies in synchronized rhythm with the language they hear
    d) by the end of the day they are born
  107. A film called Brain Sex discusses gendered behavior and highlights the crucial role of
    a) hormones
  108. At about two or three months most children begin a period in which they produce the sounds of the language they are exposed to as well as many sounds found in other languages. This is called:
    d) babbling
  109. Parents and other caregivers provide the developing child with language data and social contexts within which their abilities become focused and meaningful. This is called
    b) speech socialization
  110. In the film “First Contact” inhabitants of inland New Guinea are shown on film making a first contact with
    b) Australians
  111. In order to understand what another person is saying, you must assume it makes sense and try to imagine a scenario that can explain it in sensible terms. This is a variant of what has been called
    c) Miller’s law
  112. For the developing child:
    c) comprehension precedes production
  113. One of the first soundcontrasts learned by an English speaking child is between
    c) between p & a
  114. Single word utterances by children around the end of the first year are often called:
    c) holophrastic speech
  115. Normally by the second year or earlier, the developing child’s earlier global and imagistic thought becomes more particularistic and syntactic. The earliest linguistic evidence of syntactic unpacking of images comes with
    • b) two word grammars
    • c) pivot grammars
    • h) b & c
  116. The short video promoting Incarcerex illustrates
    c) a humorous look at the “drug problem”
  117. True syntactic construction normally marks:
    • a) differentiation of words into classes
    • e) recognition that sequential ordering of words conveys meaning
    • f) recognition that grammatical relations must be overtly expressed
    • g) a, e & f
  118. Synthetic thinking
    • a) is the ability to synthesize two kinds of thought, imagistic and syntactic
    • c) consists of a synthesis in which images are subdivided and linearized without losing sight of the global whole
    • d) is necessary for culture and a mechanism for information storage in the brain
    • g) a, c & d
  119. When a child’s speech involves a class of relatively few words used in high frequency but not co-occurring with each other in an utterance and relatively more words of a larger class of mostly nouns and verbs that can co-occur in an utterance, we are dealing with
    c) a pivot grammar
  120. Melayu
    • a) is a variety of Malay deliberately developed as a Lingua Franca.
    • b) became the national language of Indonesia
    • c) is currently more widely known as Indonesian
    • d) all of above
  121. McArthur in “Chinese, English, Spanish—and the Rest “ presents a seven tiered model seeking to:
    • a) represent the world’s languages in terms of size
    • b) represent the world’s languages in terms of clout
    • e) a & b
  122. According to one researcher, complex sentence structure is acquired by the child
    c) through positional learning, extended by means of contextual generalization
  123. In early stages of speech (one-or two-word constructions), morphological affixes denoting grammatical concepts and relations
    b) are generally omitted
  124. Linguistic form that overtly expresses grammatical meanings is informative and can, therefore, be used in interactions with people who do not share all of one's experiences, thus expanding social possibilities for a maturing child.
    a) true
  125. In a study of English speaking children it was found that:
    • a) the order of emergence of inflections is relatively stable across children
    • d) the age of emergence of inflections is not relatively stable across children
    • g) a & d
  126. When rules learned in one context are extended to other contexts through analogy, this can be called
    b) overregularization
  127. Children’s vocabulary development may include generating their own words from pre-existing words, often creating verbs derived from nouns:
    a) true
  128. Examples of Diglossia can be said to include:
    a) Spanish and Guarani in Paraguay
  129. It is generally true that children can imitate on demand many linguistic structures that they do not produce spontaneously in their own speech, suggesting that by imitation their production can precede their comprehension. This is:
    b) false
  130. It has been documented that Russian children at first omit all case distinctions,
    a) using nominative forms in every context
  131. Children generally learn the proper forms for expressing negation before they are able to understand and express underlying concepts and relations. This is
    b) false
  132. Battistela tells us that Late 19th century thinking in the US reflected the assimilationist ideology “one nation—several languages” :
    b) false
  133. Washoe, the chimpanzee in the film was hesitant about using the sign for ‘dirty’. This is:
    b) false
  134. The Gardiners report that Washoe the chimpanzee signed with a “chimp accent.” This is
    a) true
  135. In a film shown in class, Washoe the chimpanzee spoke a few words in English before being taught to sign (‘mama’, ‘come here’, and ‘fish’). This is:
    b) false
  136. A person's knowledge and ability to use all the semiotic systems available to him/her as a member of a given sociocultural community has been termed
    d) communicative competence
  137. Children in Japan learn that
    c) not expressing feelings is part of being polite
  138. Samoan children learning language acquire various linguistic means for expressing their feelings, and are encouraged to express both positive and negative feelings. This is
    a) true
  139. The origins of the English only movement included S.I. Hayakawa, a US Senator, attempting unsuccessfully to amend the US constitution to make English the official language of the US:
    a) true
  140. There are no cultures in which it is polite to talk at the same time as one’s interlocutor for more than about 20 seconds. This is
    b) false
  141. A lie is a lie in any culture, and children rarely have to learn how best to lie and get away with it. This is
    b) false
  142. Elaboration of detail in a story to make it seem more real, and therefore more believable, is called:
    c) verisimilitude
  143. Gossip is such a natural activity that we don’t have to learn how to do it right. This is
    b) false
  144. For any given culture, one has to learn how to gossip, how to recognize it, and how to evaluate it. In America this includes:
    • a) who we can tell it to
    • b) when we can tell it
    • c) where we can tell it, how to begin it
    • d) how to tell it
    • e) it how to pretend that it wasn't actually gossip
    • f) why to tell it
    • g) all of the above
  145. Among the following, one was not mentioned as a function of gossip:
    c) inheritance
  146. Gossip has been studied among Tzotzil speakers by John Haviland, who created
    b) a “Who’s Who” of Zinacantan
  147. According to Chang, repeated question in Chinese criminal courtrooms questioning are most likely to:
    • b) reflect an attempt to extract a confession or remorse from the defendant c) reflect persuasion through repetition
    • h) b & c
  148. Among these people, speakers must learn to express their own attitudes ambiguously so as to avoid potential conflict:
    b) Japanese
  149. Emotions and attitudes can be signaled in the Samoan language by
    • a) affect particles
    • b) articles
    • c) pronouns
    • f) a – c
  150. Children acquire affect markers early in development, and they learn particles and pronouns that express sympathy for oneself before those that indicate empathy for others, when they grow up in
    b) Samoa
  151. Generally children first become aware of different categories of people based on characteristics such as age and gender:
    c) in familial interactions
  152. An explicit ideolology of silence and speech different from that of “Western culture” in general is exmplified among the
    d) Quakers
  153. Whereas in “Western culture” a network of associations link women with emotion, among the Kaluli of Papua, New Guinea, it is men who are stereotypically culturally consructed as the “emotional gender.”
    a) true
  154. In the U.S. girls appear to defer to boys to the same extent that women do to men, because even at very early ages they are already socialized to produce and / or experience unequal encounters. This statement is
    b) false
  155. Before they learn to take speaker turns, children in the U.S. are nearly
    c) three years old
  156. Young children seem to have problems with multiparty interactions involving children their age, but rarely when involving older children or adults. This statement is
    b) false
  157. Because of "holistic" thinking, when a young child doesn't understand an utterance, it is difficult for her or him to locate the specific segment causing problems:
    a) true
  158. Children don’t have to learn to give "backchannel cues," appropriate signals to speakers indicating active listenership; that is something that one does instinctively. This is
    b) false
  159. Effectively reporting one's experiences is a skill that develops gradually in children. This is
    a) true
  160. Loss of one language in favor of another, usually in the direction of acquiring the language of wider currency while losing the mother tongue is often called
    a) language shift
  161. The acquisition of a language of wider currency in addition to one’s mother tongue is often referred to as
    b) bilingualism
  162. When a caretaker comments on the semantic content of a child’s words, it is called:
    c) modeling
  163. In “Western culture” a network of associations link women with emotion, and among the Kaluli of Papua, New Guinea, also, women are stereotypically culturally constructed as the “emotional gender.”
    a) true
  164. When subjects listen to tape-recorded speech in two versions of the same content, both spoken by the same fluent bilingual person this is
    • a) called the matched guise technique
    • c) supposed to measure attitudes towards languages and speakers
    • e) a & c
  165. In Quebec a Parisian French guise was
    a) more favorably rated than Canadian French
  166. Using the matched guise technique, Lambert found that Francophone subjects expressed preferences for English speakers except on ratings for
    • c) kindness
    • d) religiousness
    • f) c & d
  167. Matched-guise experiments with children as speakers and as judges show that
    a) between the ages of 10 and 12 socially derived stereotyping according to the dominant pattern of the adults begins
  168. Speech accommodation theory suggests that
    • a) when speakers have positive attitudes toward interlocutors, they converge to the latter's speech styles
    • b) speakers tend to maintain their own style, and may even exaggerate it, if they have negative opinions about co-participants
    • e) a & b
  169. In the United States there was a time when it was believed that linguistic diversity strengthened the development and exchange of ideas. This is
    a) true
  170. In the latter half of the nineteenth century laws were enacted requiring sole use of English in schools, and textbooks emphasized the co-occurrence of 'good talk' with good behavior, a moral character, and an industrious nature This is
    a) true
  171. The 1963 Bilingual Education Act
    b) can be seen as legislation against bilingualism
  172. Speakers of Native American languages number
    c) perhaps 250,000
  173. The largest group of Native American language speakers are:
    d) Navajo
  174. Three creole languages have developed in the U.S. in the past few hundred years:
    • a) Louisiana Creole
    • b) Hawaiian Creole
    • d) Gullah
    • h) a, b & d
  175. Compound bilingualism is when
    b) the languages are integrated with lexical items under a single concept
  176. Creole languages
    • a) probably arose as pidgins
    • b) are the first language of some speakers
    • c) have a wide variety of use contexts
    • d) all of the above
  177. There is at least partially differentiated organization of languages in the brain of the bilingual, as strongly evidenced by many cases of :
    c) aphasia
  178. Bilingualism has advantages for the brain, and there is considerable evidence that bilingual schooling aids learning abilities. Perhaps this is because:
    • a) intellectual development is triggered by exposure to "discrepant events
    • b) certain relevant aspects of a problem may be brought to the bilingual child's attention by the availability of two different linguistic perspectives
    • e) a & b
  179. Some settings of stable bilingualism, with conservative and innovative varieties of the same language that function as formal and informal speech varieties side by side but in different social contexts, have been called by Charles Ferguson situations of:
    b) diglossia
  180. In the film, “I’m British, But…” personal identity linked to the following was/were illustrated:
    • a) dress
    • b) music
    • c) dance
    • d) language
    • e) place of residence
    • f) all of the above
  181. Many sociolinguists believe that, in the absence of diglossia, bilingual communities will see:
    c) language shift
  182. Joan Rubin studied bilingualism in Paraguay, where she found that the following factors influenced the choice of code made by a bilingual. These were:
    • a) location of interaction
    • b) degree of participant intimacy
    • c) seriousness of the discourse
    • e) degree of formality of the situation
    • h) a, b, c & e
  183. In the film, “I’m British, But…” the filmmaker was depicted in the company of
    e) a dog
  184. In the video called “Spin,” George H.W. Bush is shown on the Larry King show.
    a) true
  185. In Paraguay the use of Spanish predominates in rural areas and Guaraní is more frequently found in urban areas. This is
    b) false
  186. The most common result of language contact is the borrowing of words, and this is most commonly effected by the mediation of :
    d) bilingual individuals
  187. Bilinguals have more linguistic resources at their disposal than do monolingual speakers, in part because words in each language express different meanings to a greater or lesser extent. Bilinguals often employ strategies for maximizing the potential expressiveness of their linguistic repertoire, such as
    • c) situational switching from one code to the other
    • d) changing from one language to the other within conversational episodes
    • f) c & d
  188. Code switching has numerous discourse and interactional functions, such as:
    • a) emphasizing
    • b) marking discourse boundaries
    • c) expressing emotions or opinions
    • d) signaling group membership and identity
    • e) all of the above
  189. Researchers emphasize that code-switching is the result of:
    g) none of the above
  190. When we produce a counterargument by pondering the hidden assumptions of an argument, we are
    a) deconstructing
  191. The term ‘institution’ is often applied to:
    • a) structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals
    • b) customs and behavior patterns that are identified with a social purpose and with permanence
    • c) customs and behavior patterns important to a society
    • d) particular formal organizations of government and public service
    • e) all of the above
  192. A language that is used by non-native speakers when interacting with speakers of different codes enabling members of diverse ethnic and linguistic groups to communicate with each other, is generally called a:
    d) lingua franca
  193. In stratified societies, beliefs about the inherent superiority of some groups and inherent inferiority of others (potentially classified according to gender, class, race, age) are:
    • a) maintained and reproduced through linguistic messages
    • b) referred to as part of the language ideology
    • f) a & b
  194. Eric Wolf claims that The ability to bestow meanings--to 'name' things, acts and ideas—along with control of communication allowing the managers of ideology to lay down the categories through which reality is to be perceived is:
    c) a source of power
  195. Interrelationships between language and hierarchical social models can also be demonstrated by contrasts in evaluations of speaking styles associated with different groups. For example, women's speech is sometimes negatively judged because of its reputed use of numerous devices to hedge or disclaim speakers' opinions and generally to show deference to interlocutors. Although it is positively perceived as "polite," women who employ this style are sometimes dismissed as inconsequential. But women who use direct ("masculine") speech are sometimes criticized for being abrasive and aggressive. This is
    a) true
  196. A cross-cultural view of gender in speech quickly demonstrates that it is the speakers, female or male, who are socially evaluated and not their linguistic output in the abstract. For instance, note that among the Malagasy, women's direct and sometimes confrontational style is denigrated, whereas men's inexplicit, vague, and deferential speech is praised, in fact, likened to that of the ancestors. This is
    a) true
  197. According to Erickson, low-status speakers react to their situation by developing a
    • style identifiable as "powerless". It is characterized by
    • a) use of intensifiers
    • b) use of hedges
    • c) use of hesitations
    • d) use of rising intonations
    • e) use of polite forms
    • f) all of the above
  198. In Japanese culture the so called "powerless" style is valued for all Japanese speakers. Markers of this style are indicators of the speaker's basic humanness, expressed in terms of harmony and empathy. This is
    a) true
  199. In educational settings the authority of teachers in the classroom is primarily based on
    • a) age
    • d) institutional position
    • h) a & d
  200. In our society, institutional settings, wherein roles are distributed and interactions are managed in terms of preassigned rights and constraints, are:
    a) important in orienting, explaining, and influencing our lives
  201. In educational settings in the lower years adults frequently employ the following methods of control in the classroom:
    • a) chaining
    • b) arching
    • f) a & b
  202. In legal institutional settings, especially in courtrooms many aspects of behavior are formalized:
    • a) the physical environment and spatial positioning of participants is predetermined
    • b) rights and obligations to speak are given according to role
    • c) relevance of topics is narrowly defined.
    • d) each type of participant--judges, lawyers, and witnesses--has different speaking styles
    • e) all of the above
  203. Edward Hermann and Noam Chomsky in their book Manufacturing Consent discuss the various "news filters" that determine what news is printed. These filters include:
    • a) size, ownership, and profit orientation of the mass media
    • b) advertising
    • d) situating of the news source
    • e) flak and the enforcers
    • h) a, b, d & e
  204. Which of the following cannot be illustrated by examples of nonverbal communication from around the world:
    b) different meanings – different signs
  205. The percentage of what we convey through non-verbal communication, as opposed to verbally is about
    d) impossible to measure.
  206. NonVerbal Communication involves all those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver:
    a) true
  207. Nonverbal communication can do the following to messages conveyed by verbal means:
    • a) substitute
    • b) contradict
    • c) complement
    • d) repeat
    • e) all of the above
  208. Because there are different species of humans, we find that different societies have different facial expressions for fear, happiness, anger, surprise, disgust and sadness:
    b) false
  209. Around the world there is a great similarity among cultures for the display rules dictating when, how, and with what consequences nonverbal expressions will be exhibited.
    a) true
  210. What makes humans cry, and who is allowed to see us cry are things that do not need to be learned as part of our cultural "education," but are rather part of our inheritance from our primate ancestors:
    b) false
  211. On Wednesday the lecturer gave examples of staring by polar bears that help us to account for global warming
    a) no he didn’t
  212. Fortunately the human eye has multiple functions. Among them are:
    • a) regulating interactions
    • b) seeing
    • c) indicating degree of attentiveness, interest, and arousal
    • d) crying
    • e) all of the above
  213. Some studies indicate that in most instances
    • a) women maintain more eye contact than do men
    • b) women look at other women more and hold eye contact longer with one another than men do with one another
    • e) a & b
  214. Of the five senses the earliest to mature in social terms is
    d) touch
  215. Women initiate hugs and embraces, according to studies reported in this class:
    • a) more often than men to women
    • b) more often than men do to other men
    • c) more often than men do to children
    • d) all of the above
  216. Elements that have been found to affect the meaning we give to smell include
    • a) strength of the small in relation to competing odors
    • b) the perceived relationship of the parties involved
    • c) the smell’s distance from the other person
    • g) a, b & c
  217. Americans represent an example of a culture that tends to
    b) be uncomfortable with natural body smells
  218. In Japan, at any formal or semiformal function, the person sitting closest to the door is
    c) the person with the least status
  219. According to some, people who rush are suspected of trying to cheat:
    c) in Africa
  220. A culture’s use of time can profitably be seen from the perspectives of
    • a) informal time
    • b) perceptions of past, present and future
    • f) a & b
  221. Chronemics is
    b) the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication
  222. There is a direct connection, research tells us,
    c) between the speed that people walk and their culture’s concept of time
  223. Past Oriented cultures include
    • a) British
    • b) Chinese
    • c) Native Americans
    • h) a, b & c
  224. Present Oriented cultures include
    • c) Filipinos
    • e) Latin Americans
    • i) c & e
  225. Future Oriented cultures include
    d) Americans
  226. E.T. Hall proposed a classification of time as a form of communication, which included the categories:
    • a) Monochronic (M time)
    • b) Polychronic (P time) Classifications
    • g) a & b