Chapter 13

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Chapter 13
2010-12-17 21:49:03

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  1. personality
    the characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances
  2. personality trait
    a characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances
  3. psychodynamic theory
    Freudian theory that unconscious forces, such as wishes and motives, influence behavior
  4. psychosexual stage
    according to Freud, the developmental stages that correspond to the pursuit of satisfaction of libidinal urges
  5. id
    psychodynamic theory; the component of personality that is completely submerged in the unconscious and operates according ot the pleasure principle
  6. superego
    in psychodynamic theory; the internalization of societal and parental standards of conduct
  7. ego
    psychodynamic theory; the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being responsive to the dictates of the superego
  8. defense mechanisms
    unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflict and distress
  9. humanistic approaches
    approaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experience and belief systems; they propose that people seek perosnal growth to fulfill their human potential
  10. personality types
    discrete categories based on global personality characteristics
  11. trait approach
    an approach to studying personality that focuses on the extent to which individuals differ in personality dispositions
  12. CAPS model
    Mischel and Shoda believed personality traits alone could not predict behavior
  13. idiographic approaches
    person-centered approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique persons
  14. nomothetic approaches
    approaches to studying personality that focus on how people vary across common traits
  15. projective measures
    personality tests that examine unconscious processes by having people interpret ambiguous stimuli
  16. objective measures
    relatively direct assessments of personality, usually based on information gathered through self-report questionaires or observer ratings
  17. situationism
    the theory that behavior is determined more by situations than by personality traits
  18. interactionists
    theorists who believe that behavior is determined jointly by underlying dispositions and situations
  19. temperments
    biologically based tendencies to feel or act in certain ways
  20. behavioral approach system (BAS)
    the brain system involved in the pursuit of incentives or rewards
  21. behavioral inhibition system (BIS)
    the brain system that is sensitive to punishment and therefore inhibits behavior that might lead to danger or pain
  22. sociometer
    an internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection
  23. self-serving bias
    the tendency for people to take personal credit for success but BLAME failure on external factors