Chapter 6

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Author:
mmbarton
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54358
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Chapter 6
Updated:
2010-12-08 16:10:20
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Fossils
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Fossils
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  1. According to
    uniformitarianism, how does geologic change happen?
    gradually
  2. Which of the following events would be a catastrophe?
    A. an average rainfall
    B. gradual erosion
    C. deposition
    D. an asteroid hitting the earth
    D. an asteroid hitting the earth
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. ´╗┐What kind of scientist studies the history of plants and animals?
    A. a paleontologist
    B. a botanist
    C. a geologist
    D. a chemist
    A. a paleontologist
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. How are rock layers arranged in the geologic column?

    A. Oldest rocks are on the top.
    B. Oldest rocks are on the bottom.
    C. Youngest rocks are in the middle.
    D. Youngest rocks are on the bottom.
    B. Oldest rocks are on the bottom.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. How does a geologist know that rock layers are undisturbed?

    A. Rock layers are folded.
    B. Rock layers are horizontal.
    C. Rock layers are tilted.
    D. Rock layers are faulted.
    B. Rock layers are horizontal.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. What is a fault?
    a. molten rock that squeezes into existing rock
    b .a break in the Earth’s crust
    c. slanted layers of rock
    d. a bent and buckled layer of rock
    b .a break in the Earth’s crust
  7. What is the most common type of unconformity?
    A. a nonconformity
    B. a disconformity
    C. an angular unconformity
    D. a fault
    B. a disconformity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which of the following are isotopes?
    A. atoms with the same number of neutrons
    B. atoms with the same number of electrons
    C. atoms with the same number of protons and neutrons
    D. atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
    D. atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. Which two methods of radiometric dating are used for rocks more
    than 10 million years old?

    A. rubidium-strontium and carbon-14
    B. rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead
    C. rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon
    D. rubidium-strontium and carbon-12
    B. rubidium-strontium and uranium-lead
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. What is amber?
    A. wet, sticky tree sap
    B. an insect’s body
    C. a hard shell
    D. hardened tree sap
    D. hardened tree sap
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of the following is an example of mineral replacement?
    A. a frozen mammoth
    B. La Brea tar pits
    C. petrified wood
    D. hardened tree sap
    C. petrified wood
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following is an example of a trace fossil?
    A. preserved footprints
    B. hardened tree sap
    C. mold and cast
    D. a frozen mammoth
    A. preserved footprints
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which kind of temperatures will slow down an organism’s decay?
    freezing temperatures
  14. Which era ended with the
    largest mass extinction in Earth’s history?
    Paleozoic
  15. Which era are we in now?
    Cenozoic
  16. What does the rock and fossil record represent?
    geologic time
  17. If a trilobite was buried by ocean sediment, it would leave a cavity, or a(n)
    mold
  18. What process involves the comparison of rock layers with others in a sequence to determine its age?
    relative dating
  19. Which of the following is the largest division of geologic time?
    A. period
    B. epoch
    C. eon
    D. era
    C. eon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Erosion is one of the major causes of the missing rock layers, known as
    A. unconformities
    B. superposition.
    C. the geologic column.
    D. tilting.
    A. unconformities
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. A fossil used to date surrounding rock layers is called a(n)
    A. index fossil.
    B. cast.
    C. mold.
    D. trace fossil.
    A. index fossil.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. To determine the most accurate and precise age of Earth’s oldest rocks, geologists would use
    A. index fossils.
    B. the carbon-14 method.
    C. relative dating.
    D. the uranium-lead method.
    D. the uranium-lead method.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Which of the following is a trace fossil?

    A. a frozen woolly mammoth
    B. a mosquito trapped in amber
    C. a mummified plant seed
    D. a mark left by a dinosaur’s tail
    D. a mark left by a dinosaur’s tail
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. How many years of the history of Earth do geologists study?
    4.6 billion years
  25. Which of the following processes always occurs at a steady rate?
    A. radioactive decay
    B. decay of organic matter
    C. sediment deposition
    D. erosion
    A. radioactive decay
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The phrase “younger over older” could be used to remember the
    principle of
    A. unconformities.
    B. superposition.
    C. absolute dating.
    D.geologic columns.
    B. superposition.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. What did marine fossils discovered on a Canadian mountaintop tell scientists?
    A. The rocks had probably been moved.
    B. The rocks had probably eroded.
    C. The rocks on the mountaintop were once below the ocean’s surface.
    D. Marine species once lived on land.
    C. The rocks on the mountaintop were once below the ocean’s surface.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. Which of the following do geologists use to date rock layers?
    A. molds
    B. casts
    C. trace fossils
    D. index fossils
    D. index fossils
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. What is tilting?
    A. folding of rock layers
    B. an intrusion
    C. slanting of rock layers
    D. a form of erosion
    C. slanting of rock layers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Which word best describes the geologic column?
    A. absolute
    B. ideal
    C. complete
    D. relative
    B. ideal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which era ended with the largest mass extinction in Earth’s history?
    A. Paleozoic
    B. Proterozoic
    C. Cenozoic
    D. Mesozoic
    A. Paleozoic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. What do scientists think may have caused dinosaurs to become extinct?
    A. competition between dinosaurs
    B. disappearance of prey
    C. climate change
    D. competition from mammals
    C. climate change
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. What does a scientist need to know to figure out the absolute age of a rock?
    A. the half-life of a radioactive sample
    B. the rate of decay for a radioactive element in the rock
    C. the rate of decay for all elements in the rock
    D. the rate of decays of the rock’s half-life
    B. the rate of decay for a radioactive element in the rock
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. What happens during radioactive decay?
    the half-life of a radioactive sample
  35. What can a scientist learn from studying the relationships between fossils?
    how life has changed
  36. What would geologists use to determine the most accurate and precise age of Earth’s oldest rocks?
    the uranium-lead method
  37. Which of these is a trace fossil?

    A. a mosquito trapped in amber
    B. a frozen woolly mammoth
    C. a mark left by a dinosaur’s tail
    D. a mummified plant seed
    C. a mark left by a dinosaur’s tail
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. How many years of Earth’s history do geologists study?
    4.6 billion years
  39. Which of the following processes always occurs at a constant rate?

    A. radioactive decay
    B. decay of organic matter
    C. sediment deposition
    D. erosion
    A. radioactive decay
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. phrase “younger over older” could be used to remember which of the following principles?
    A. absolute dating
    B. geologic columns
    C. unconformities
    D. superposition
    D. superposition
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. What did scientists learn after discovering marine fossils on a Canadian mountain top?
    The rocks on the mountaintop were once below the ocean’s surface.
  42. Climate change caused the extinction of which group of animals?

    A. mammals
    B. insects
    C. birds
    D. dinosaurs
    D. dinosaurs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. What process compares one rock layer with others in a sequence?

    A. radiometric dating
    B. relative dating
    C. radioactive decay
    D. absolute dating
    B. relative dating
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. What is it called when an area is worn down by water, wind, or other elements?
    erosion
  45. Which of the following is NOT a measure of absolute dating?
    A. uranium-lead
    B.strontium-rubidium
    C. carbon-12
    D. potassium-argon
    C. carbon-12
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. What do scientists know about an undisturbed sequence of rocks?
    Younger rocks are on top of older rocks.
  47. How does the geologic column help geologists?
    A. It tells them where to find trace fossils.
    B. It helps them identify rock layers.
    C. It isn’t much help at all.
    D. It helps them find water.
    B. It helps them identify rock layers.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Where are most fossils preserved?
    A. in sedimentary rock
    B. in asphalt
    C. in amber
    D. in ice
    A. in sedimentary rock
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. Why is the fossil record incomplete?
    A. Scientists don’t like to work on it.
    B. There isn’t enough amber.
    C. Most organisms never became fossils.
    D. Most organisms have soft body parts.
    C. Most organisms never became fossils.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. Which method is most useful in dating plant and animal remains?
    A. carbon-14
    B. potassium-argon
    C. uranium-lead
    D. rubidium-strontium
    A. carbon-14
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Which part of an animal is more commonly preserved?
    A. the shell or bones
    B. the eyes
    C. the soft parts
    D. the organs
    A. the shell or bones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which of the following can scientists NOT interpret by examining fossils?
    A. how Earth’s environment has changed over time
    B. how plants and animals have changed over time
    C. how the pull of gravity has changed
    D. the age of certain layers of rocks
    C. how the pull of gravity has changed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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