logical fallacies

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logical fallacies
2010-12-08 17:42:22
english terms

quick definition (no examples)
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  1. ad hominem
    bad person
  2. tu quoque
    you too, hypocrite
  3. post hoc
    cause and effect based only on sequence
  4. ad hoc
    after the fact explanation thrown together
  5. argument to tradition
    its old so its right
  6. hasty generalization
    fact of small applied to large amt
  7. sweeping generalization
    large group applied to specific instance/individual
  8. non sequitur
    argument in not relevant
  9. straw man
    • exaggerate or highlight weak point of counter to easily refute them
    • (hint: straw men are easily destroyed)
  10. Appeal to pity/emotion (pathos)
    exaggerating excessively to evoke certain emotion
  11. appeal to ignorance
    lack of evidence proves something (can't prove it exists/is true so it doesn't/isn't)
  12. Ethos (appeal to authority)
    using false expertise; do something because someone says so
  13. appeal to public/people
    a large majority believes it so it's right
  14. bandwagon
    a large majority of ppl do something so you should too
  15. begging the question/circular argument
    using your premise to prove itself
  16. red herring
    introduce something to distract from the main argument--seems like its related but its not
  17. slippery slope
    exaggerates possible effects; chain reaction ending in some dire consequence (one step and you slip to the bottom)
  18. false analogy
    two things compared that aren't really alike
  19. Either or
    suggests there are only two options/possible outcomes in a complex situation
  20. equivocation
    play on words; word is used in two different meanings in the same argument and thus changes the subject
  21. stereotypes (type of sweeping generalization)
    generalizing characteristics of a specific group