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What is water use v. water consumption?
- Water use- temporary "borrowing" of water (irrigation/thermoelectric/public supply)
- Consumption- actual water loss to a process or evaporation (irrigation/transpiration)
What is a water footprint?
The total volume of freshwater used to produce a particular set of goods/services
What are the four sources of water pollution?
- 1. Stormwater runoff
- 2. Sewage- septic systems and sewage treatment plants
- 3. Industrial pollution
- 4. Agricultural pollution
What does agriculture do to the environment?
soil erosion, fertilizer/pesticide pollution, deforestation, desertification, aquifer depletion, salinization, loss of biodiversity
What is the difference between food access, food availability, and food utilization?
- Food Availability - Within Reach; sufficient quantities of necessary types of food are available
- Food Access - Purchasing Power; individuals have adequate incomes or other resources to purchase or barter to obtain food
- Food Utilization - Nutrition; food is properly used; proper food processing and storage techniques are employed; adequate knowledge of nutrition and childcare techniques exists and is applied; and adequate health and sanitation services exist
What are the two areas of risk for agriculture?
- 1. Soil damage (desertification)- poor agriculture, grazing, modifying horizons, species, climate
- a. Mitigation- fertilizers (causing N-cycle to be off-balance)
- 2. Soil loss- washes out, erosion, water loss
- a. Mitigation- seasonal plowing, terracing, crop rotation, no-till agriculture
What is Integrated Pest Management?
Control of agricultural pests using integrated methods (combo of bio and chemical agents); attempts to minimize chemical use and prevent buildup of pesticide resistance
What are the pros and cons of Genetically Modified Crops?
- Pros: stress tolerance- drought/cold/floods, efficiency- nutrients/water/nitrogen, pest/disease resistance, more food on less land
- Cons: unknown consequences, human impacts, gene transfers, loss of biodiversity, costs, indirect harm to organisms
What are examples of poor utilization of biological control organisms?
- Guam- snails, tree snails, flatworms; did not predate on target species
- Hawaii- mongoose and rats; mongoose killed unique birds and wrong times (day v. night)
How can we deal with population increase?
- Close the yield gap- globalize, specialization, international cooperation, knowledge on surplus and needs, address climate change
- Increase production limits- GMOs, water/nutrient efficient, stress tolerant
- Reduce waste- developing world: lack of storage/transportation, developed world: costs, cosmetic standards, "use by" dates
- Increase beyond the 14 staple food species (wheat, rice, corn, potatoes, beans)
What is adaptive water management?
It incorporates science, policy, and management issues to solve long-term water issues; living document approach
What will climate change affect in terms of water?
- 1. Hydrologic cycle- precipitation, snowpack, reservoirs, flooding, extreme storms
- 2. Coastal sea level rise- CA Delta
- 3. Consumption- agriculture, industry, landscaping, drinking supply, land use (development in arid regions)
What does human activity do to the marine environment?
marine habitats/fisheries, wastewater discharge, offshore oil/gas, recreation, habitat destruction, water contamination, erosion, resource depletion, cultural degradation, poverty
What is the California Ocean Protection Act?
- It is an act that implements "integrated ecosystem management"; 6 focus areas: governance, research/monitoring, coastal water quality, physical processes, coastal ecosystems, education and outreach
- It is important to economy and in leading the nation in marine protection
What is the West Coast Governor's Agreement?
It is a collaboration between Washington, Oregon, and California for ocean health which launched a new, proactive regional collaboration to protect and manage the ocean and coastal resources along the entire West Coast; priority areas: a) clean waters and beaches; b) healthy ocean & coastal habitats; c) ecosystem-based management; d) offshore development; e) ocean literacy; f) ocean science; and g) sustainable economic development
What is the Marine Life Protection Act?
It uses the best readily available science, involves stakeholders and public, sets up a master plan for comprehensive system of MPAs; involves Blue Ribbon Task Force, Science Advisory Team, regional stakeholders group, statewide interest groups, and CA Dept of Fish and Game
What is the purpose of MPAs?
- * Prevent further decline of fisheries; increase fish abundance and size
- * Protect marine ecosystems from coastal development impacts
- * Recognize and designate uses
- * Manage entire ecosystems
What are the challenges of MPAs
- * Animals move, habitats vary, conditions change
- * Economic hardships amongst stakeholders
- * Monitoring/regulation/enforcement difficulties
What are the different levels of MPAs in CA?
- Marine Reserves- no-take
- Marine Parks- limited take
- Conservation Areas- fewer restrictions
- Recreational Managed Areas- allows recreational activities
Who is the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)?
Globally recognized climate scientists that develop predictions of climate change regarding GHGs, temp increases, sea level rises, human impacts, and ecological effects