General Pathology

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General Pathology
2010-12-08 18:48:00
Ultrasound General Pathology

Ultrasound General Pathology
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  1. Anatomy
    Study of body structures in any level
  2. Physiology
    Study of functions of organ/structure (all processes)
  3. Pathology
    Study of disease processes
  4. Disease
    Any condition that is other than normal (abnormal lab value, clinical signs and symptoms)
  5. Homeostasis
    State of equilibrium of the internal environment of the body regulated by complex mechanism
  6. Congenital
    Disease or defect present at birth, developed in uterus. Can apparent immediately or remain latent until later
  7. Hereditary
    Disease transferred from genes of parent(s) to genes of child
  8. Chromosomal
    Improper cell division
  9. Developmental
    Cells in the fetus don’t migrate to the proper location, structures fuse or divide improperly
  10. Teratogens
    Environmental factors that affect the fetus in uterus, causing chromosomal or developmental abnormalities
  11. Trauma
    Physical injury caused by an external force
  12. Trauma types
    Acceleration-Deceleration, cuts and punctures, poisons and radiation, burns
  13. Infection
    Invasion of the body by a foreign organism, in favorable conditions for organism it will multiply and damage cells and tissue
  14. Infection agents
    Bacteria, virus, fungus and parasites
  15. Idiopathic
    Disease with unknown or uncertain cause
  16. Atrophy
    Disuse or wasting of tissue, cell size decrease, shrinking of organ
  17. Hypertrophy
    Increasing of cell size, enlarging of organ
  18. Hyperplasia
    Increasing of cell number, enlarging of organ
  19. Dysplasia
    New abnormal cell growing
  20. Necrosis
    Injured or damaged cell death
  21. Benign
    Localized tumor, will not invade the organ, will not spread to other organs
  22. Benign neoplasm (tumor)
    Slow rate of growth, well encapsulated, is not invading, compressing the tissue, will not reoccur after removal, cold spot
  23. Fibroma
    Tumor composed of connective tissue
  24. Myoma
    Tumor composed of muscle (common in the uterus, called Fibroma because of a connective tissue covering
  25. Lipoma
    Tumor composed of fat (common under the skin)
  26. Papilloma
    Tumor composed of epithelial tissue (grows from the lining of organs, polyp of GB, wart of skin)
  27. Adenoma
    Tumor composed of glandular epithelial tissue (can be found in liver, kidneys, pancreas, breast)
  28. Cystadenoma
    Serous or mucinous fluid secreted by epithelial tissue that becomes cystic (commonly found in ovaries)
  29. Malignant
    Invasive tumor that destroys the host tissue, spreads to other organs resulting in death of the organism
  30. Malignant neoplasm (tumor)
    Fast rate of growth, not well encapsulated, invades to host tissue, spreads to distant organs, can reoccur after removal, hot spot
  31. Carcinoma
    General term given to cancers composed of epithelial tissue
  32. Sarcoma
    Composed of connective tissue (more common in children and young adults)
  33. Teratoma
    Tumor of mixed tissues, malignant form of neoplasm
  34. Blastoma
    Describing tumor in a child
  35. Metastases
    Spreading of malignant tumor, can be spread via blood, lymph or by direct contact with adjacent tissue.
  36. Original tumor
    Primary cancer
  37. Metastatic tumor
    Secondary cancer
  38. Redness
    Increased blood supply to the area (Color)
  39. Swelling
    Fluids released into the tissue to dilute toxic agents (Tumor)
  40. Heat
    Tissue temperature increase because of increased blood supply, leads to fever (Calor)
  41. Pain
    Pain can be localized or referred to another area in the body (Dolor)
  42. Loss of function
    Ultimate result of inflammation, this can be reversed (Pallor)
  43. Total healing
    No permanent damage
  44. Immune response
    After the body is exposed to infection, body is building resistance to future infections
  45. Scar tissue
    Formation of fibrous or scar tissue, can affect tissue function if its big
  46. Recurrence
    If disease condition repeats its termed CHRONIC
  47. Hematoma
    • Healing process may result in hematoma formation; it’s a blood-filled tumor or blood clot. (sonographically appears like a cyst)
    • Abscess Infections usually are leading to abscess formation, localized pus collection. It is caused by pyogenic collection
  48. Gangrene
    Necrosis cases, if considerable amount of tissue is affected its termed Gangrene. Gangrene will spread to adjacent tissue and must be excised (surgically removed) before healing will take place