Final Neuro

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Final Neuro
2010-12-11 12:12:35
Final Neuro

Final Neuro
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  1. ______: cognition intact, lost ability to generate or understand verbal expression
  2. ______ area: Area located in the frontal lobe usually of the left cerebral hemisphere and associated with the motor control of speech; Cases of speech disruption
    after Frontal injury; Left hemisphere controls
    speech in MOST cases
    broca's area
  3. _______ area: associated with language comprehension. Without this area, people can hear the words or read the letters, but have difficulty attributing meaning to them. Superior surface of left temporal lobe is it's location.
    Wernicke's area
  4. _____ aphasia: understand heard or read speech but difficulty speaking. better at overlearned or habitually said words (pledge of allegience; writing also affected; aware of disorder.
    Broca's aphasia
  5. _____: difficulty finding words
    _____: content words intact; function words left out (articles, pronouns, conjunctions) verbs often not conjugated.
    • anomia
    • aggramatism
  6. ______ aphasia: comprehension problems; speech is fluent but confusing/meaningless; can't produce sign language, written words, or read; unaware of disorder.
    Wernicke's aphasia
  7. _______ aphasia: damage to neurons connecting Wernicke's and Broca's areas. Can understand written and spoken language. Expressed and written language are impaired severely. Word substitutions often occur.
    Conduction aphasia
  8. ______ aphasia: most severe form of aphasia. inability to use languae in any form. due to large lesion to left lateral cerebrum.
    global aphasia
  9. The wernicke-geschwind model for repeating spoken word states that incoming sound is processed by the _____ system; neural signals are sent to the _____ cortex and processed by the ______ area and sends signals to _______ area via the arcuate fasciculus which converts to code for movement. The _____ motor cortex causes lip, tongue and larynx movement.
    • auditory system
    • auditory cortex
    • wernicke's area
    • broca's area
    • signal motor cortex
  10. the wernicke-geschwind model for reading written word aloud states that words to the visual system are processed and sent to the _____ gyrus which transforms into as if spoken instead of written. This info is sent to _____ area which processes spoken words. Sends info to ______ area via the ______ fasciculus which is then coded for movement.
    • angular gyrus
    • wernicke's area
    • broca's area
    • arcuate fasciculus
  11. True or false: lesion to broca's area interfere's with speech production as signals can't be sent to motor cortex.
    True or false: lesion to broca's area disturbs comprehension due to interference with wernicke's area?
    True or false: lesion to broca's area does not affect chewing or swallowing?
    • true
    • false
    • true
  12. Lesion to Wernicke's area causes ______ problems, but broca's area is intact so speech can be produced.
  13. True or false: visual info can go directly to Broca's area without passing through wernicke's or angular gyrus?
  14. Lesion of ______ ______: comprehension is good, speech is fluent but confused, problem repeating words.
    (conduction aphasia) arcuate fasciculus
  15. Left hemisphere is ____ dominant but right hemisphere is responsible for _____ communication.
    • speech
    • nonverbal
  16. Right brain can read and understand numbers, letters, short words as long as response required is ______.
  17. ______ _______: superior surface of temporal lobe, larger on left in 65% of brains. may be due to dominant speech.
    planum temporale
  18. Emotional memory: (part of nondeclarative memory) _______: contains memory for fear. does not require attention, and not affected if declarative or procedural impaired.
  19. _______ memory: recollections that can be easily verbalized. requires attention. 3 stages? name stages.
    • declarative memory
    • immediate, short term, long term
  20. _______ declarative memory: 1-2 sec, info processed through primary sensory and sensory association areas of cortex (but not limbic system).
  21. ________ declarative memory: brief storage of recognized stimuli, unless rehearsed, lose in 1 min.
    short term
  22. ________ declarative memory: relatively permanent storage info; consolidation occurs with conversion of infor from short to long.
    long term
  23. _______ memory: recall of skills and habits. changes in performance without conscious awareness (motor learning); practice is required.
    procedural memory
  24. _______ _______: begins with perception which travel to hippocampus where decide whether to store or not. sotred as electrical or chemical signals. synapses formed and strengthened throught practice. 3 stages.
    memory encoding
  25. _____ ______ ______: long lasting post synaptic depolarization. Produced by repetitive stimulation. Summation of epsp's. Increased kinases. Build up of dopamine and glutamate receptors. Dendritic growth genetic activity and protein synthesis.
    Long term potentiation
  26. ______ hippocampus: in terms of short term memory is responsible for memory of language, autobiography, and episodic memory.
    Left hippocampus
  27. ______ hippocampus: in terms of short term memory is responsible for spatial memory in "place cells" such as relational memory in mazes, malls, and airports.
    right hippocampus
  28. ______ lobe: responsible for moral behavor, social skills, inhibits pleasure centers in limbic lobe, planning, problem solving, executes motor behavior, and long term memory prefrontal and orbitofrontal lobes.
    frontal lobe
  29. ______ cortex and _____ _____ lobe: combines working memory for complex planning and problem solving.
    Prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe
  30. _______: pre-conditioned for retaining and learning info.
    ___-___ law: task efficiency declines with decreased arousal or attention.
    • attention
    • yerkes-dodson law
  31. ______ amnesia: loss of memory of events before the trauma are forgotten.
  32. ______ amnesia: inability to form new memories following brain trauma.
    anterograde amnesia
  33. Emotion is mediated by the ______ system ( amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus)
  34. _________: regulates hunger, thirst, response to pain, levels of pleasure, sexual satisfaction, anger, and functioning of ANS (HOMEOSTASIS).
  35. Homeostasis starts with _______ _______: regulated parameter is measured by sensory neurons. Deviations from optimal range detected by neurons in hypothalamus. These neurons orchestrate a response to get back to optimal range.
    sensory transduction
  36. _______ response: hypothalamic neurons stim. or inhibit release of pituitary hormones into blood.
    ______ response: hypothalamic neurons respond to sensory signals and adjust balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic outputs of ANS.
    ______ response: hypothalamic neurons respond to sensory signals by causing somatic motor response.
    • humoral response
    • visceromotor response
    • somatic motor response
  37. Brain requires ______. Deprivation causes loss of consciousness and death.
  38. ________ hypothesis: brain monitors amount of fat and "defends" this energy source.
    lipostatic hypothesis
  39. Lesions to both sides of _______ can affect feeding behavior.
    Bilateral lesions of _____ ______= anorexia
    Bilateral lesions of _____ ______= overeat and become obese.
    • Hypothalamus
    • lateral hypothalamus
    • ventromedial hypothalamus
  40. ________: transfers memories from short term to long term. Forms basis for our responses and emotions.
  41. _______: interprets facial expression, body language, social signals; essential for social behavior, emotional learning, and regulates motivation.
  42. _____-_____ theory: external stimulus leads to physiological theory. your emotional reaction is dependent upon how you interpret those physical reactions. ("i am trembling, therefore I am afraid")
  43. ______-_____ theory: when a stimulating event happens, we feel emotions and physiological changes at the same time.
    cannon bard theory
  44. Reward system/ pleasure circuit: located at the top of the brain stem in the ______. These neurons relay their messages through their axons to nerve cells in a limbic system structure called the _____ _____. Additional nerve fibers reach part of the _____ region.
    • ventral tegmental area (VTA)
    • nucleus accumbens
    • prefrontal region
  45. _______ ______: involved in controlling our motivations and plays central role in reward circuit. Its operation is based chiefly on two essential neurotransmitters. (dopamine, serotonin)
    nucleus accumbens
  46. _______ _______ ______: most primitive parts of the brain. neurons synthesize dopamine. influenced by endorphins whose receptors are targeted by opiate drugs.
    ventral tegmental area
  47. _______ ______: role in planning and motivating action. significant relay in the reward circuit. modulated by dopamine.
    prefrontal cortex
  48. Rewarding effects of drugs of abuse come from large and rapid upsurges in ________>
  49. Stress response:
    Somatic NS: (increases or decreases) muscle tension.
    Autonomic NS: (increases or decreases)blood flow to muscles and (increases or decreases) to skin, kidneys, and digestive tract.
    Neuroendocrine system: epiniphrine released into bloodstream (increases or decreases) cardiac rate and contraction strength, relaxes smooth muscle and increases metabolic rate.
    • increases
    • increases/decreases
    • increases
  50. Lesion to _______ ______ association cortex results in apathy and lack of initiative, lack or goal-directed behavior, difficulty with executive functions.Test with normal intelligence. Convergent thinking intact but Divergent thinking is lost. Perform poorly in daily life.
    dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex
  51. Lesion to ________ association areas:
    Left= wernicke's area (loss of speech)
    Right= loss of direct attention, comprehnsion of location in space and neglect, and nonverbal communication.
    parietotemporal association areas
  52. Lesion to _______ association cortex: results in inappropriate and risky behavior, intact intellectual abilities, poor judgement, impulsivity,aggressive outbursts, and often struggle with work and relationships.
    limbic association cortex
  53. Lesion to ______: difficulty recognizing expressions and emotions of others. Memory for facts and events is intact.
  54. ______: due to NT defect (reduced serotonin levels in CSF) and damage to prefrontal cortex. Treat with meds.
  55. _______ or ______: due to damage to right prefrontal cortex.
    Euphoria or indifference
  56. _______: abnormal, uncontrolled emotional expression.
  57. _________: significant loss of grey matter especially in frontal and temporal lobes. Have enlarged ventricles and decreased prefrontal function.