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- Job performance
- Organizational commitment
What are the five main components of the intergrative model of OB?
- Individual outcomes
- Individual mechanisms
- Individual Characteristics
- Group mechanisms
- Organizational mechanisms
OB theories and concepts are derived from
- industrial and organizational psychology
- social psychology
What is organizational behavior?
A field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations
Personality, cultural values, and ability
Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Behaviors that benefit the larger organization by supporting and defending the company, working to improve its operations, and being especially loyal to it.
Voice, civic virtue, boosterism
Interpersonal Citizenship Behavior
Behaviors that benefit coworkers and colleagues and involve assisting, supporting, and developing other organizational members in a way that goes beyond normal job expectations.
Helping, courtesy, sportsmanship
- Hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees
- Behaviors that intentionally disadvantage other individuals rather than the larger organization.
- Directed against the organization but focuses specifically on reducing the efficiency of work output
- Wasting Time
- Substance Abuse
Possess low levels of both organizational commitment and task performance and merely exert the minimum level of effort needed to keep their jobs.
Respond to negative events with neglect
Possess low levels of organizational commitment but high levels of task performance and are motivated to achieve work goals for themselves, not necessarily for their company.
Likely to respond to negative events with exit
Possess high commitment and low task performance but perform many of the voluntary “extra-role” activities that are needed to make the organization function smoothly.
Likely to respond to negative events with loyalty
Possess high commitment and high performance and are held up as role models for other employees.
Likely respond to negative events with voice
Four Types of Employees
- Lone Wolfes
- Behaviors that harm the organization’s assets and possessions.
- Employee behaviors that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment.
- Property deviance
- Production deviance
- Political deviance
- Personal Aggression
Voluntary employee activities that may or may not be rewarded but that contribute to the organization by improving the overall quality of the setting in which work takes place.
The desire on the part of an employee to remain a member of the organization.
The value of the set of employee behaviors that contribute, either positively or negatively, to organizational goal accomplishment.
Describes the statistical relationship between variables
Why are organizations more profitably who practice OB?
- Good people are a valuable resource
- They are rare and hard to imitate
- Many scientific studies support the relationship between effective organizational behavior and company performance
- Organizational Structure
- Organizational Culture
Argues that job satisfaction depends on whether you perceive that your job supplies the things that you value.
Apleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences.
- It represents how you feel about your job and what you think about your job.
- 49 percent of Americans are satisfied with their jobs, down from 58 percent a decade ago.
Degree to which the job requires a number of different activities that involve a number of different skills and talents.
Job Characteristics Theory
Five facets employees use to evaluate their job
- Pay satisfaction
- Promotion satisfaction
- Supervisor satisfaction
- Coworker satisfaction
- Satisfaction with work itself
- Job satisfaction
- Trust, justice, and ethics
- Learning and decision making
The degree to which the job requires completing a whole, identifiable, piece of work from beginning to end with a visible outcome.
The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, particularly people in the world at large.
The degree to which the job provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual performing the work.
The degree to which carrying out the activities required by the job provides the worker with clear information about how well he or she is performing.
Critical Psychological States
- Meaningfulness of Work
- Responsibility for Outcomes
- Knowledge of Results
Meaningfulness of Work
Reflects the degree to which work tasks are viewed as something that “counts” in the employee’s system of philosophies and beliefs.
Responsibility for Outcomes
Captures the degree to which employees feel that they are key drivers of the quality of the unit’s work.
Knowledge of Results
Reflects the extent to which employees know how well (or how poorly) they are doing.
A psychological response to demands for which there is something at stake and coping with those demands taxes or exceeds a person’s capacity or resources.
The particular demands that cause people to experience stress
The negative consequences that occur when demands tax or exceed one’s capacity or resources
Two main categories of Stressors
- Hindrance stressors
- Challenge Stressors
- Stressful demands that are perceived as hindering progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment.
- Tend to trigger negative emotions such as anger and anxiety.
- Stressful demands that are perceived as opportunities for learning, growth, and achievement.
- Often trigger positive emotions and enhance motivation.
Social support and Two Examples
- Refers to the help that people receive when they are confronted with stressful demands.
- Instrumental support
- Emotional support
The assistance people receive that can be used to address the stressful demand directly.
The help people receive in addressing the emotional distress that accompanies stressful demands
How Important is stress?
- Strains have a moderately negative effect on job performance.
- Strains have a strong negative effect on organizational commitment.