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≈The tendency of individuals to put forth less effort in a group than individually.
- ≈Results in possibly lower group performance and failure to
- attain group
Group members get to know each other and reach common understanding.
Close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members.
Stages of Group Leadership
Advantages and Disadvantages of Large Groups
- ≈More resources at their disposal to achieve group
- ≈Enables managers to obtain division of labor
Disadvantages of large groups:
≈Problem of communication and coordination
≈Lower level of motivation
- ≈Members might not think their efforts are really
Advantage of Small Groups
- Interact more with each other and easier to
- coordinate their efforts
More motivated, satisfied, and committed
Easier to share information
- Better able to see the importance of their
- personal contributions
Keys to Affective Self Managed Teams
- ØGive the team enough responsibility and
- autonomy to be self-managing.
- ØThe team’s task should be complex enough to
- include many different steps.
- ØSelect members carefully for their diversity,
- skills, and enthusiasm.
- ØManagers should guide and coach, not
- ØAnalyze training needs and be sure it is
- ≈A group that managers or nonmanagerial
- employees form to help achieve their own goals or to meet their own needs.
- ≈A group that managers establish to achieve
- organization goals.
- The creative development of new products, new
- technologies, new services, or new organizational structures
- People working in a group are able to produce
- more outputs than would have been produced if each person had worked separately
- are groups but not all groups are teams.
- teams often are difficult to form
- it takes time for members to learn how to work together
- A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or
- A team whose members rarely or never meet face
- to face and interact by using various forms of information technology such as email, computer networks, telephone, fax and video conferences.
A committee of managers or non-managerial employees from various departments or divisions who meet to solve a specific, mutual problem, also called an "ad hoc" committee.
Reciprocal Task interdependence
Work performed by one group member is fully depend on work done by the other members.
An informal group composed of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization.
Set of behaviors and tasks that a group member is expected to perform because of his or her position in the group.
Three major consequences of Group Cohesiveness
- Level of participation
- Level of conformity to group norms
- Emphasis on group global accomplishment
The degree to which members are attracted to their group.
An informal group composed of employees who enjoy each other's company and socialize with each other.