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Know the Electromagnetic Spectrum, the visible light spectrum, and which
colors have the longest waves
- Visible Light
- Radient Energy
- Visible electromagnetic radiation
- Electromagnetic Spectrum
- Arrangement of waves according to wavelengths
- and frequencies
- Gamma Rays, X-rays, UV Radiation, Visible Light, IR Radiation, Microwaves, Radio Waves
Know the formula for frequency and wavelength
- Wavelength= Speed of Light
Know the characteristics of light and how it behaves
- Travels like a wave, strikes like a particle
- Longer wavelengths bend more around objects
- Constructive and destructive
- Stream of light particles which exerts a force
- called “radiation pressure”
- Red light= low energy, Violet light=high energy
What is a pulsar?
A spinning neutron star that radiates short bursts/pulses of radio energy
Know the life cycles of low-mass, medium, and high mass stars and how they
Low: Nebula, Protostar, Main Sequence Star, White Dwarf, Black Dwarf
Medium: Nebula, Protostar, Main Sequence, Red Giant, Nebula, White Dwarf, Black Dwarf
Massive: Nebula, Protostar, Main Sequence, Red Supergiant, Supernova, Neutron Star OR Black Hole
Which stars go to supernova?
Understand how energy is created in our sun
- · Atmospheric molecules of dust/ gas change direction of solar radiation
- · Earth’s surface re-radiates heat as IR radiation
Know how galaxies are grouped
Know the Nebular Theory and the Big Band Theory
· Big Bang
- o Expanding Universe
- o 13.7 billion years ago
- · Nebular Theory
- o Sun and planets formed from rotatating disk of dust/ gas
- o Speed of rotation increases and center of area
- flattens out and matter is more concentrated in center when sun forms
Why was Copernicus
- · First to say Earth is a planet and the Sun is the Universe
Know the differences between terrestrial and Jovian planets
According to the IAU, what must a planet do?
Know difference between comets, meteors, meteorites, and the composition
of each one
- o Outside Neptune, pulled towards Sun, and they are very regular short comets, made of water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, monoxide
- · Meteors/ Meteorites
- o Meteors pieces of space that fall to Earth
- o Friction heats them up and burns them away
- o Meteorites- Meteors that don’t completely burn up and hit the ground
Know the difference between lunar and solar eclipses
Understand Newton’s first law of motion
What is the difference between a spring tide and a neap tide?
· Spring- 2 every month
o Tides with greatest tidal range due to alignment
- of Earth, moon, and sun
· Neap- 2 every month
o Lowest tidal range, occurs during the first and
- third quarter of the moon phases
o Earth, moon, and sun make a right angle
Know the formula for universal gravitation
Understand the gravity formula
Know the layers
that make up Earth’s interior
· Crust, lithosphere, mantle, Asthenosphere, core
continental drift hypothesis and why scientists rejected it
Know and understand the mechanism that drives the theory of plate
tectonics and the source of heat in the Earth
Know plate tectonics and the features they form
· Divergent- plates move apart
o Creates rift valleys
· Convergent- plates push together
o Creates trenches, volcanoes, and mountain ranges
· Transform- plates slide against each other
o Creates faults
Know the differences between mid ocean ridges and subduction zones
Know the earthquake terms: focus and epicenter
Know the difference between P and S waves and how each one travels
· P Waves
o Compressional Waves
o Move 2x faster than S Waves
o Move through solids/ liquids
· S Waves
o Transverse Waves
o Move at a right angle
o Only travel through solids
Know the three faults and the stress that causes them and the three folds
What determines HOW
a volcano erupts?
Know the three types of volcanism
Know the types of volcanoes and how each is formed
Know intrusive igneous rock features
· Pluton- structures result from cooling and
- hardening of magma under Earth’s surface
· Sill- Forms where magma flows
· Dikes- magma from large chamber moves into
· Batholiths- largest body of intrusive igneous
What is the evidence for the Big Bang?
How do astronomers classify stars?
Know the three types of rocks
What era contains 88% of Earth’s history?
What happened during the Carboniferous period?
· Coal swamps forests developed in wet tropical
· First reptiles appeared
· Africa collided with N. America to create
- Appalachian Mtns.
Know the periods during the Paleozoic Era
Cambrian, Crdovcian, Silurian, and Pevonian
Know why the sun or any star remains stable
Outward pressure and inward gravity
What % of time do stars remain in the main sequence stage?
Know the difference between a red shift and a blue shift
- Red Shift- light waves stretched, Earth/ Source moving away
- Blue Shift- light waves cramped, Earth/ Source moving towards each other
Know the phases of the moon, which is waxing, which is waning
- Waxing- light comes from right moves to left
- Waning- light shrinks from left to right
Understand Inertia which has more, a person or a house
A house has more inertia
Know kinds of light interference
Know shape of planets orbit
Know why planets remain in orbit around the sun
An object falling from a position at rest falls in a vertical straight line. A object falling curves
Know the three types of boundries
Transform, Convergent, Divergent
What two types of forces shape the Earth?
Know the process of erosion
Wind, water, gravity
Know the principles of horizontality, Cross cutting relations, and superposition
- Horizontality- Gravity forces rock layers to be flat
- Cross Cutting Relations- Igneous rock that cuts across another rock unity that must be younger than surrounding rocks
- Superposition- rocks aged from oldest (bottom) to youngest (top)
How long is carbon dating good for?
What gases were present at Earth's beginning?
Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide, and Water vapor
When did mammoth's disappear?
10,000 years ago
What does cenzoic mean?
Recent life/ age of mammals