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Concepts Modern Sciences
Concepts in Modern Sciences 1 Final Exam.
Why is a greal deal of thermal energy required to convert a liquid like water to a gas (steam)?
Hydrogen bonding is a strong attaction and it takes a lot of energy to overcome it.
Electrons at which energy level would have the highest ionization energies?
The octet rule states that all atoms need full outer energy levels and have election configuation that look like...
A material that shows polarization in its chemical attraction is...
If you drop a material that is held together by ionic bonds, one likeyly outcome is that it will...
Sodium Chloride (NaCl) atoms form a crystal lattice that is healf together by...
The elctrons at the outer level of the atom are called.
Chemical bonds are...
the redistribution of electrons between atoms, leading to a more stable configuration.
Where do electrons come from in order to produce both a +2 and +3 oxidation number in an Fe ion.
The +2 comes from the s-orbital and then to get +3 you lose another electron from the d-orbital, leaving it half full.
If electrons are like particles, then...
they creat interference patterns in the dual slit experiement.
A quantum leap occurs...
whenever an electron moves between energy levels and emits a photon.
What represents the most stable arrangement of electrons.
a. atoms with completly filled valance shells.
b. elements that are positioned on the far right colum of the periodic table of elements.
c. inert gases such as helium, neon, and argon.
d. atoms with a total of 2, 10, 18, and 36 electrons.
We think that the sun is composed of a significant amount of H and He, what evidence do we have for this?
The Sun's spectrun shows absorption lines for both H and He.
The physical principles that allow an electric stove's burner to glow when heated...
Electrical energy causes quantum leaps and then when falling from extied to ground states, producing light.
Mendeleev's periodic table was organized according to rules of scientific method. Which statement below follows those rules?
The periodic table made predictions that could be tested.
If was first discovered that atoms have a nucleus when...
some alpha particles were defelcted by gold nuclei in rutherford's experiment.
Evidence for the theory that an atom is mostly space was based on research by...
In 1808, which person below borrowed the name 'atom' from Greek writings and described in a modern way how it is that an atom is indivisible?
When two or more atoms combine chemically this forms the basic constituent of many diffrent kinds of material, which is called...
Materials made from a single type of atom that cannot be broken down any further are called...
If you flipped a coin while going up an escalator, a person observing the motion of the coin would describe the motion as...
You are in a car that is traveling next to a police car at the same speed. If the police car has the siren going, the pitch of the siren...
will be the same as if the vehicles wern't moving.
Two flutes are both playing an F, what is happening to the resulting waves?
The sound waves combine and the amplitude doubles.
Astronomers are interested in the light given off by stars and what that can tell them about their motion. If a star is moving towards us, it's light will be shifted towards...
the ablility of microwave ovens to cook food depends partly upon the fact that microwaves...
Are absorbed quickly by water molecules, which generates heat.
The fundamental diffrence between electromagnetic waves and other types of waves is that electromagnetic waves...
Transfer energy without transferring mass.
Compared to microwave radiation, infrared radiation...
is a slower wave.
What is the same for all kinds of electromagnetic waves?
Your brain sends out electrical impulses to your body. Based on what you know about simple circuits, how do you thinkg our nerves are connected.
Two bulbs are connected in seried with three batteries. If one bulb goes out, what till happen to the other bulb?
The other bulb will go out because the circuit has been opened.
What would use low resistance wires?
an electrical transmission line
when can you cut a magnet in half you get?
Two dipole magnets.
In what way does Newton's law of univeral gravitation differ from Coulomb's law?
Electrical forces can be either attractive or repulsive, while gravity is only attractive.
Every electrical circuit contains...
an electrical conductor.
Hans Christian Oersted discovered the relationship between the forces of magnetism and electricity by...
an accidental discovery during a physics leture.
what can produce a magnetic field?
moving electrical charges.
Heat moves from areas of high temperature to areas of low temperature until both areas have the same temperature because...
there are more ways for energy to be distributed when both areas have the same temperature.
When gaseous water condenses to liquid water...
The water releases energy to the surroundings.
The energy stored in all fossil fuels was originally in...
What is the rate of acceleration for a car that reaches a speet of 3m/s from rest in 10s?
If the moon was positioned twice as far from the Earth as it is now, the gravitational attraction would be...
1/4th as great.
What is a rate?
Laws of nature can be characterized by saying that they...
represent out best understanding of how the universe works in certain circumstances.
the scientific method depends on?