Molecular cell biology final exam

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phis66
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54510
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Molecular cell biology final exam
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2010-12-09 00:00:23
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final exam biology microbiology molecular cell biology
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Review molecular cell biology microbiology course
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  1. Are chromosomal diseases inherited?
    No, chromosomal diseases are random mistakes in the genome, they are accidents that occur during meiosis.
  2. Chromosomal Diseases
    • -Arise from huge errors in the DNA that result from having extra chromosomes, large missiing sequence or other error
    • -Usually cause by a random physical error during reproduction.
  3. DNA
    • It is amolecule made up of nucleic acids, which are the principal informational molecule of a cell
    • -DNA is a polymer of nucleotides, which consist of purine and pyrimidine bases linked to phosphorylated sugars
  4. Nucleotide
    Consists of sugar+base+phosphate
  5. Nucleoside
    Base and sugar
  6. ___________are proteins that associate with DNA and provide first order of structure of chromatin
    Histones
  7. List the 5 histones types
    • 1. H1
    • 2. H2A
    • 3. H2B
    • 4. H3
    • 5.H4
  8. Nucleosome
    composed of DNA wrapped arround a histone
  9. Chromatosome
    A nucleosome bound by a linker histone
  10. Euchromatin
    Relatively decondensed and distributed throughout the nucleus, genes are transcribed and DNA is replicated in preparation for cell division.
  11. Heterochromatin
    Very highly condensed state that resemble that chromatin of cell underdoind mitosis: transcriptionally inactive
  12. Constitutive heterochromatin
    It is always condensed
  13. Facultative heterochromatin
    It is not always condensed; depends on the cell and phase of cell cycle
  14. Levels of chromatin structure
    • 1. Beads on a string
    • 2. looped form (mediated by scaffolding proteins)
    • 3. euchromatinf or solenoid form
    • 4. heterochromatin or looped solenoid form
  15. Telomeres
    • Rich in G C
    • a chromosome end contains variable number of telomeric repeats (non coding DNA sequences)
    • -3' end of DNA at each telomere is sligthly linger than the 5' end with which it is paired
  16. The normal end of the chromosome has a unique structure called the __________ that serves as protection from degradative enzymes and clearly distinguished it from the and ends of the broken DNA molecules that the cell rapidly repairs.
    by telomere repeating factors TRF1 and TRF2
  17. A non functional telomerase can promote cancer and other proliferative diseases?
    No
  18. Transcription is ______dependent-_______synthesis
    DNA dependent-RNA synthesis
  19. RNA polymerase binds to a DNA promoter sequence in the ____stage
    Binding
  20. The first step in forming a transcription complex for mRNA transcription in eukaryotes is binding of _______ to the TATA box
    TFIID
  21. In what stage does RNA polymerase starts the synthesis of a RNA chain
    initiation
  22. RNA polymerase does not require a____to initiate RNA synthesis
    Primer
  23. DNA Transcription requires_____strand of DNA
    one
  24. Where does transcription occur
    the nucleus
  25. unwinding of the double helix occurs in the _____stage
    elongation
  26. It is the type of transcription factor that bind to DNA sequences for control gene expression
    specific
  27. This specific transcription factor serves as a bridge to RNA polymerase II
    TFIIB
  28. It is used in initiation as it begins de novo synthesis of RNA joining two free NTPs
    RNA polymerase II
  29. IN the termination sequence, the symmetrical inverted repeat if a ___rich sequence is followed by four or more A residues. Results in the formation of stable stem-loop structure.
    GC-
  30. During elongation, no more______factors are involved
    transcription
  31. The end of transcription in eukaryotes is signaled by an RNA polymerase transcribing a _____sequence
    Termination
  32. The DNA strand or blueprint that is to be read by the RNA polymerase for transcription is called the _____strand
    template
  33. the _______area is the area of the DNA molecule that is to be transcribed. It is located past or below the start site, towards the 3' end of the template (positive numbers)
    Downstream
  34. The non-transcribed region og the DNA template is known as the __ area. It is located past or below the start site, towards the 5' end of the template(negative numbers)
    upstream
  35. The new RNA transcript is also known as the ____ strand
    Coding
  36. Compared to DNA synthesis, RNA makes hundreds of copies during its synthesis. Because of that, RNA synthesis does not possess 3' -5'________proofreading activity
    exonuclease
  37. During the binding stage, the______dictated which if the two DNA strands will serve as the template
    promoter
  38. chaperones are responsible for
    Assist in the proper folding of a protein
  39. Why are chemical bonds important
    They help to understand how molecules and structures fold due to their hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions
  40. A lipid is both hydrophibic and hydrophilic
    Yes
  41. Protein
    Its a complex molecule that can be simplified into molecular chains, can turn on and off, myoglobin in muscle cells and porin are examples of proteins
  42. All aminoacids have
    Amino and a carboxyl group
  43. Intermolecular force in dipole molecules is a
    vander waals force
  44. Examples of amphipathic molecules
    fatty acids, detergents, cholesterol
  45. The primary structure of a protein is written from
    Amino to carboxyl end
  46. Which aminoacids from below are more likely to be found on the exterior of globular proteins

    A-G
    F-Y
    R-I
    E-V
    • A
    • F
    • I
    • V
  47. Polar covalent bond
    Type of bonf that occurs when atoms of a molecule differ in electronegativity and geometry
  48. T or F: BOth polar and non-polar covalent bonds share electrons equally between atoms of a molecule
    false
  49. Whuch helix contains mainly hydrophilic aminoacids on one side of the helix and hydrophobic aminoacids on the other side of the helix
    Alpha helix
  50. An alpha helix makes a turn every
    3.6 residues
  51. which amino acid is used to initiate protein synthesis
    methionine
  52. an alpha helix
    forms H bonds with the CO group of one pepride with the NH group of another peptide
  53. What regulates G1 checkpoint? and what does it check for?
    G1 checkpoint is regulated by p53 and it checks for cell size, nutrients, growth factors, and DNA damage before going into the S phase (DNA synthesis phase).
  54. WHat regulates g2 check point? what is cheked for at this point?
    G2 check point is regulated by Chk1 and CHK2; it checks for cell size , DNA replication and DNA damage defore going to M phase
  55. What dies the sprindle assembly checkpoint check for?
    Sprindle assembly checkpoint checks for chromosome attachment to sprindle and chromosome alignment

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