Orchestration- Percussion plus Final Review
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How are the harp pedals arranged from left to right?
- D C B / E F G A
- Did Columbus Bring Enough Food Going [to] America?
What scale do harp pedals all the way up give?
What scale do harp pedals one notch down (middle) give? By what interval do they affect the pitches?
- C scale
- raise all the notes one half step
What scale do harp pedals two notches down give? By what interval do they affect the pitches?
- C# scale
- raise all the notes a whole step
Which harp pedals does the left foot operate?
D C B
Which harp pedals does the right foot operate?
E F G A
What is a whole tone scale?
C D E F# G# A#
What is a C#dim7 chord?
- Db(C#) Db(C#) Bb E Fb(E) G Ab(G#)
- Db (C#) E G Ab(G#) Bb
How many strings does a double-action harp have? In what key are they tuned?
Under what circumstance can a harpist change two pedals at the same time?
When each is operated by a different foot
What is an idiophone?
- produces its sound by the vibration of the entire body of the instrument
- ex: triangles, cymbals, wood blocks, marimbas, vibraphones, chimes
What is a membranophone?
- produces its sound by the vibration of a skin or membrane tightly stretched over a resonating shell or tube
- ex: timpani, bongos, tambourine
What is an aerophone?
- produces its sound by the vibration of an air column within an enclosed body
- ex: woodwinds & brass; whistles, sirens, machines
What is a chordophone?
- produces its sound by the vibration of its strings
- ex: cimbalom, keyboard instruments
What is pr`es de table?
plucking the harp string near the soundboard to give a hard, brittle, almost metallic sound
What is sons 'etouff'es?
- each note is dampened as soon as it is plucked (harp)
- like secco pizzicato on strings
What is bisbigliando?
a type of temolo unique to the harp; "whispering"; played very softly and creates a special rustling effect
What is a whip/slapstick?
- constructed of two strips of thin hard wod tied together into a paddle held by a string
- when clapped together, the two pieces of wood produce a single very hard stroke; usually used to emphasize a sforzando
What is a cimbalom?
- laid flat and struck on its metal strings in various ways with leather or wooden mallets
- similar to a piano in that it has a multiple of strings for each pitch, although it has no keyboard, and often has a damper pedal
- has a compass of four octaves with all chromatic tones
What is a damper pedal?
lifts all the dampers and permits the strings to vibrate even after the key has been released (aka sustaining pedal, different from sostenuto pedal)
What is the difference between finger cymbals and crotales?
- Finger cymbals- indefinite pitch
- Crotales- thicker, tuned in a chromatic scale, have definite specified pitch
How does one tune timpani?
- The food pedal which changes pitches quickly and easily
- When time permits, manually (by tightening or loosening the screws placed around the perimeter of the drumhead?)
What sizes do timpani come it?
32", 28", 25", 23", 21" (piccolo)
What are tom-toms? How many can one use?
- Membranophones which occupy a gray area between definite and indefinite pitch, as they can be tuned to approximate pitches if desired
- Come on two stands, each with a pair mounted on it, and are pitched from high to low in four different voices
What are timbales? How many can one use?
- Come in pairs, fastened to a metal stand like the one-headed tom-toms; metal shell of about snare-drum depth gives them a more metallic and piercing sound than tom-toms
- Come in two sizes, 13" and 14" in diameter, one high and one low
What is an instrument of indefinite pitch?
Produces pitches that aren't necessarily clear and audible (noise makers)
What is an instrument of definite pitch?
Produces clear, audible pitches
What does one best set up a percussion-section score?
- 1. By height of pitches played, with the highest instrument at the top and the lowest on the bottom
- 2. By the materials from which the instrument is constructed, such as metal, wood, membrane
Where are nonpitched instruments placed in a score?
Immediately below the timpani
Where is the percussion section placed in an orchestral score?
Between the brass and the strings
Which percussion instrument appears first in a score?
Where are the keyboard instruments place in a score? What is the order of the instruments?
- After nonpitched percussion
- Glockenspiel, crotales, xylophone, vibraphone, marimba, chimes, celesta, piano, harpsichord, organ
Where is the harp placed in a score?
Below nonpitched percussion instruments and above the keyboard instruments
Give one way to produce harmonics on the harp.
Touch the center of the string (at the node) with the outside of the knuckle of the right index finger and pluck the string with the right thumb
How many pedals does the harp have? In how many positions can each pedal be set?
Name some aerophones.
- percussion- whistles, sirens, and machines (like the wind machine)
- brass- horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba
- woodwinds- flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon
Name all transposing percussion and keyboard instruments and describe how they transpose.
- glockenspiel & crotales- sound 2 octaves up
- xylophone & celesta- sound an octave up
What is meant by prepared piano?
Various objects (nails, bolts, etc.) are placed either on top of the strings or wedged between them
Discuss the piano as a percussion instrument.
- Substitutes for or contrasts with xylophone, marimba, or vibraphone
- Reinforces the timpani or bass drum at the bottom of its range
What is the range of the piano?
A0 to C8
What is the range of the marimba?
A2 to C7
What is the range of the vibraphone?
F3 to F6
What is the range of the crotales?
C5 to C6
What is the range of the xylophone?
F3 to C7
What is the range of the glockenspiel?
G3 to C6
What is the range of the chimes?
C4 to F5
What is the range of the timpani?
C2 to B3 or C4
What is the range of the harp?
Cb0(1) to G#7
What is the range of the violin? (for final exam)
G3 to E7 or B7
Name two indefinitely pitched membrane percussion instruments.
snare frum, bass drum (tom-toms)
Name two indefinitely pitched wood percussion instruments.
wood block, slap stick
Name two indefinitely pitched metal percussion instruments.
Name two definitely pitched membrane percussion instruments.
Name two definitely pitched wood percussion instruments.
Name two definitely pitched metal percussion instruments.
crotales, vibraphone, also glockenspiel
What kinds of sticks or beaters are used for the triangle?
small metal beater
What kinds of sticks or beaters are used for the conga drum?
hands; all types of mallets
What kinds of sticks or beaters are used for the crotales?
metal mallet; wooden, plastic, & rubber mallets
What kinds of sticks or beaters are used for the cymbals?
wooden drumstick, marimba yarn mallets, wire brushes, triangle beater
What is the order of an orchestral score?
- Woodwinds: flute, oboe (Eng. horn), clarinet (bass clarinet), bassoon (contrabassoon)
- Brass: horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba
- Percussion: timpani, nonpitched, harp, keyboards
- Strings: violins 1&2, viola, cello, bass
How does a flute transpose?
How does a piccolo transpose?
sounds an octave higher
How does an alto flute transpose?
sounds P4 down (key of G)
How does a bass flute transpose?
sounds an octave down
How does a Bb clarinet transpose?
sounds a whole step down
How does an A clarinet transpose?
sounds m3 down
How does an Eb "piccolo" clarinet transpose?
sounds up m3
How does a bass clarinet transpose?
sounds M9 down
How does the alto clarinet in Eb transpose?
sounds M6 down
How does a clarinet in D transpose?
sounds a whole step up
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