Chapter 21: Atmospheric Changes

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Chapter 21: Atmospheric Changes
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2010-12-09 06:56:13
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Chapter 21: Atmospheric Changes
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  1. Increase in earth's average temperature over time.
    Global warming
  2. The causes of Global Warming
    include an increase in the
    atmospheric concentration of
    ____ (i.e. carbon
    dioxide).
    greenhouse gases
  3. ____ is produced
    anytime we burn fossil fuels (coal,
    oil, natural gas). With increased
    usage of fossil fuels, these concentrations in the
    earth’s atmosphere are increasing
    Carbon dioxide
  4. The ____ work like a
    green house to keep heat (reflected
    infrared radiation) from escaping
    from the earth’s atmosphere.
    greenhouse gases
  5. Since 1850 the larger glaciers in
    the park have lost two-thirds
    their size, and the total park
    area covered by glaciers has
    lost three-fourths its size. Many
    smaller glaciers have
    disappeared completely. Most
    experts believe that with
    current warming rates, there
    will be no glaciers in Glacier
    National Park by ____. Even
    with no additional warming,
    the glaciers are likely to
    disappear by ____.
    2030, 2100
  6. Glacier National Park has about 50 small glaciers, __ of
    which are still large enough to be officially classified as
    glaciers under ____ requirements.
    Studies indicate that glacial retreat began about 1850
    when there were more than 150 glaciers in Glacier NP.
    These glaciers are direct remnants from an ice age that
    ended about 11,000 years ago. Because of their relatively
    low elevations and inland location, the park’s glaciers are
    highly sensitive to ____.
    37, U.S. Geological Survey, global climate change.
  7. the additional trapping of heat in the
    atmosphere by gases that absorb infrared radiation.
  8. Enhanced green house effect
  9. gases that absorb infrared radiation (heat)
  10. Green house gases
  11. 5 Main Green House Gases:
  12. carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons
    and tropospheric ozone.
  13. The Effects of Global Warming:
  14. • Melting ice and rising sea levels.
    • • Changes in precipitation patterns –
    • drought in some areas, flooding others.
    • **What about California? More or less
    • rain?**
    • • Effects on organisms – zooplankton
    • decline, algae growth, plants.
    • • Effects on human health – heat waves,
    • disease outbreaks.
    • • Effects on agriculture – productivity
    • increase or decrease.
    • • Unforeseen events – *Our current
    • understanding of the effects of global
    • warming is very incomplete.
  15. how to slow down the rate of climate change
  16. Mitigate
  17. How can we mitigate global warming?
  18. 1. develop alternatives to fossil fuels
    • 2. control human population
    • 3. increase energy efficiency in transportation and appliances
    • 4. planting and maintaining forests to absorb carbon dioxide
    • 5. Carbon management – ways to convert or capture or convert CO2
    • during the combustion of fossil fuels
  19. • An overwhelming majority of climate experts feel that human-induced
    climate change is inevitable.
    • Therefore it is important that we ____ to that change.
    adapt
  20. How can we adapt to global warming?
  21. 1. move people inland away from the coast where they are subject
    • to increased sea levels and away from the dangers of storm
    • surges.
    • 2. construct dikes and levees to coastal land
    • 3. adapt to shifting agricultural zones.
  22. making adjustments to deal with climate change.
    Adapt
  23. a high energy form of radiation that can be lethal at higher levels of exposure.
  24. Ultraviolet radiation
  25. Air temperature in the stratosphere ____ with height due to sunlight absorption by ozone.
    increases
  26. Air temperature in the troposphere ____ with height.
    decreases
  27. O3 (three Oxygen atoms)
  28. Ozone
  29. Layer of the atmosphere
    closest to the earth (to 10 Kilometers (6.2
    miles))
  30. Troposphere
  31. Layer of atmosphere
    immediately above the troposphere 10K
    to 45 K
    Stratosphere
  32. a human–made pollutant in the
    troposphere.
    troposheric ozone
  33. a naturally produced, protective
    shield in the stratosphere
    stratospheric ozone
  34. a high energy form of radiation that can be lethal at
    higher levels of exposure.
    ultraviolet radiation
  35. O3 (three Oxygen atoms)
  36. Ozone
  37. **If the protective layer of ozone in the stratosphere were not present,
    the earth could become uninhabitable for most forms of life.**
  38. • The ozone molecule that serves as a pollutant at the earth’s surface, is the
    same molecule that serves to protect us in the stratosphere.
  39. Thinning of the protective ozone layer
    Stratospheric ozone thinning (ozone depletion)
  40. With the depletion of the protective ozone layer, more ____ makes it's way to the earth's surface.
    ultraviolet radiation
  41. Effects of ozone depletion:
    • 1. increased cataracts
    • 2. increased skin cancer
    • 3. weakened immune system
    • 4. ecosystem disruption - Antarctic food chain as phytoplankton productivity is declining.
    • 5. mutations in ice fish eggs and larvae
    • 6. amphibian population decline
    • 7. possible crop and forest damage - more work need to be done on plants
  42. Causes of Ozone depletion:
    • 1. CFC's (chlorofluorocarbons) destroy ozone
    • 2. CFC's= chlorine containing compound that attack the ozone layer
    • 3. CFC's inclue propellants for aerosol cans, Freon= AC and refrig coolants, some solvents, and foam blowing agents in the manufacture of Styrofoam.
  43. Steps in ozone depletion:
    • 1. CFCs released
    • 2. CFCs rise into ozone layer
    • 3. UV releases Cl from CFCs
    • 4. Cl destroys ozone
    • 5. Cepleted ozone = more UV
    • 6. More UV- more skin cancer
  44. Forms of acid deposition:
    Acid rain, acid fog, acid snow, acid hail, and acid sleet.
  45. A type of air pollution that includes acid that falls from the atmosphere as precipitation or as dry particles. It is produced when sulfur diozide and nitrogen ozides mix with water in the atmosphere to produce sulfuric acid, and nitric acid.
    Acid deposition
  46. Effects of acid deposition:
    • 1. kills aquatic organisms
    • 2. causes forest decline
    • 3. corrodes metal products
    • 4. erodes stone, including famous statuary.
  47. The pH scale is a logarithmic scale where a pH of 3 is ___x more acidic than a pH 4 and ___x more acidic than a pH of 5.
    10x, 100x
  48. pH scales of:
    distilled water __
    tomato juice __
    vinegar __
    lemon juice __
    normal rain __
    7, 4, 3, 2, 5-6 (acid rain in NE 4-3 and even lower)
  49. Gradual deterioration and eventual death of trees
    Forest decline
  50. ____ and ____ contribute to forest decline.
    Air pollution and acid deposition
  51. Forest decline effects:
    • 1. damage to leaves and bark
    • 2. reduced photosynthesis
    • 3. increased susceptibility to other problems
    • 4. plant death
    • 5. cell membrane damage
    • 6. root damage
    • 7. damage to beneficial root fungi
    • 8. impairment of water and nutrient uptake

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