Chapter 21: Atmospheric Changes
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Increase in earth's average temperature over time.
The causes of Global Warming
include an increase in the
atmospheric concentration of
____ (i.e. carbon
____ is produced
anytime we burn fossil fuels (coal,
oil, natural gas). With increased
usage of fossil fuels, these concentrations in the
earth’s atmosphere are increasing
The ____ work like a
green house to keep heat (reflected
infrared radiation) from escaping
from the earth’s atmosphere.
Since 1850 the larger glaciers in
the park have lost two-thirds
their size, and the total park
area covered by glaciers has
lost three-fourths its size. Many
smaller glaciers have
disappeared completely. Most
experts believe that with
current warming rates, there
will be no glaciers in Glacier
National Park by ____. Even
with no additional warming,
the glaciers are likely to
disappear by ____.
Glacier National Park has about 50 small glaciers, __ of
which are still large enough to be officially classified as
glaciers under ____ requirements.
Studies indicate that glacial retreat began about 1850
when there were more than 150 glaciers in Glacier NP.
These glaciers are direct remnants from an ice age that
ended about 11,000 years ago. Because of their relatively
low elevations and inland location, the park’s glaciers are
highly sensitive to ____.
37, U.S. Geological Survey, global climate change.
the additional trapping of heat in the
atmosphere by gases that absorb infrared radiation.
Enhanced green house effect
gases that absorb infrared radiation (heat)
5 Main Green House Gases:
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons
and tropospheric ozone.
The Effects of Global Warming:
• Melting ice and rising sea levels.
- • Changes in precipitation patterns –
- drought in some areas, flooding others.
- **What about California? More or less
- • Effects on organisms – zooplankton
- decline, algae growth, plants.
- • Effects on human health – heat waves,
- disease outbreaks.
- • Effects on agriculture – productivity
- increase or decrease.
- • Unforeseen events – *Our current
- understanding of the effects of global
- warming is very incomplete.
how to slow down the rate of climate change
How can we mitigate global warming?
1. develop alternatives to fossil fuels
- 2. control human population
- 3. increase energy efficiency in transportation and appliances
- 4. planting and maintaining forests to absorb carbon dioxide
- 5. Carbon management – ways to convert or capture or convert CO2
- during the combustion of fossil fuels
• An overwhelming majority of climate experts feel that human-induced
climate change is inevitable.
• Therefore it is important that we ____ to that change.
How can we adapt to global warming?
1. move people inland away from the coast where they are subject
- to increased sea levels and away from the dangers of storm
- 2. construct dikes and levees to coastal land
- 3. adapt to shifting agricultural zones.
making adjustments to deal with climate change.
a high energy form of radiation that can be lethal at higher levels of exposure.
Air temperature in the stratosphere ____ with height due to sunlight absorption by ozone.
Air temperature in the troposphere ____ with height.
Layer of the atmosphere
closest to the earth (to 10 Kilometers (6.2
Layer of atmosphere
immediately above the troposphere 10K
to 45 K
a human–made pollutant in the
a naturally produced, protective
shield in the stratosphere
a high energy form of radiation that can be lethal at
higher levels of exposure.
**If the protective layer of ozone in the stratosphere were not present,
the earth could become uninhabitable for most forms of life.**
• The ozone molecule that serves as a pollutant at the earth’s surface, is the
same molecule that serves to protect us in the stratosphere.
Thinning of the protective ozone layer
Stratospheric ozone thinning (ozone depletion)
With the depletion of the protective ozone layer, more ____ makes it's way to the earth's surface.
Effects of ozone depletion:
- 1. increased cataracts
- 2. increased skin cancer
- 3. weakened immune system
- 4. ecosystem disruption - Antarctic food chain as phytoplankton productivity is declining.
- 5. mutations in ice fish eggs and larvae
- 6. amphibian population decline
- 7. possible crop and forest damage - more work need to be done on plants
Causes of Ozone depletion:
- 1. CFC's (chlorofluorocarbons) destroy ozone
- 2. CFC's= chlorine containing compound that attack the ozone layer
- 3. CFC's inclue propellants for aerosol cans, Freon= AC and refrig coolants, some solvents, and foam blowing agents in the manufacture of Styrofoam.
Steps in ozone depletion:
- 1. CFCs released
- 2. CFCs rise into ozone layer
- 3. UV releases Cl from CFCs
- 4. Cl destroys ozone
- 5. Cepleted ozone = more UV
- 6. More UV- more skin cancer
Forms of acid deposition:
Acid rain, acid fog, acid snow, acid hail, and acid sleet.
A type of air pollution that includes acid that falls from the atmosphere as precipitation or as dry particles. It is produced when sulfur diozide and nitrogen ozides mix with water in the atmosphere to produce sulfuric acid, and nitric acid.
Effects of acid deposition:
- 1. kills aquatic organisms
- 2. causes forest decline
- 3. corrodes metal products
- 4. erodes stone, including famous statuary.
The pH scale is a logarithmic scale where a pH of 3 is ___x more acidic than a pH 4 and ___x more acidic than a pH of 5.
pH scales of:
distilled water __
tomato juice __
lemon juice __
normal rain __
7, 4, 3, 2, 5-6 (acid rain in NE 4-3 and even lower)
Gradual deterioration and eventual death of trees
____ and ____ contribute to forest decline.
Air pollution and acid deposition
Forest decline effects:
- 1. damage to leaves and bark
- 2. reduced photosynthesis
- 3. increased susceptibility to other problems
- 4. plant death
- 5. cell membrane damage
- 6. root damage
- 7. damage to beneficial root fungi
- 8. impairment of water and nutrient uptake
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