CH 22: Water pollution

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CH 22: Water pollution
2010-12-09 08:19:13
Water pollution

Water pollution
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  1. water that is unfit for it’s intended use due to the
    addition of impurities of some kind.
  2. Water pollution
  3. *Pollution of ____ supplies is probably responsible for more human
    illness than any other type of environmental disruption
  4. pollution from a specific site via pipes,
    sewers, or ditches.
  5. Point source pollution
  6. pollution that
    enters water over vast areas, especially pesticides and fertilizers.
    Agricultural runoff from feed lots (hog farms, poultry farms) is a
    huge problem. Others include urban waste and mining waste.
  7. Nonpoint source pollution (polluted runoff)
  8. Types of Water Pollution:
  9. 1. Sewage – wastewater from toilets, sinks, showers – contains human waste
    • (urine, feces), soaps.
    • 2. Disease-causing agents – bacteria, viruses, protozoans, parasitic worms,
    • that come from the waste of infected individuals.
    • Diseases caused
    • cholera, typhoid, dysentery, enteritis by bacteria
    • hepatitis, poliomyelitis by virus
    • cryptosporidioisis, amoebic dysentery by protozoans
    • schistosomiasis by fluke
    • anclystomiaisis by hookworm
  10. an acute intestinal infection caused eating food or
    drinking water contaminated with Vibrio cholerae.
  11. a test for the presence of E. coli, a common bacteria
    found in human and animal solid waste. This test can be used to determine
    the amount of sewage present in a water source.
  12. Fecal coliform test
  13. excessive soil particles in water due to erosion
  14. 3. Sediment pollution
  15. substances that stimulate growth of algae and
    plants including nitrogen and phosphorus from fertilizer runoff or animal
    wastes, and phosphate detergents.
  16. Inorganic plant nutrients
    example: enrichment
  17. the introduction of fertilizers into a body of water
  18. Enrichment
  19. synthetic (man-made) carbon compounds that include
    oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, and pesticides. These often remain in the environment
    for a long time.
    • Example – Toxic Soup in Avila Beach in 1998 – Union Oil paid
  20. Organic compounds
  21. non-carbon
    containing acids, salts, and heavy
  22. Inorganic chemicals
  23. highly toxic, long lasting,
    can lead to kidney failure and
    nervous system damage. Mercury is
    found in dry-cell batteries, paint,
    and plastics. It is an accumulative
    poison (builds up in body over
    time) found in fish
  24. mercury
  25. used in winter to melt
    ice. Harms plants and water quality
  26. road salt
  27. acid drainage from mines – ex.
  28. Sulphuric acid pollutes waterways
  29. as a result of uranium mining
    radioactive substances
  30. the release of heated water. Steam generated power plants
    used water to remove excess heat. The warmed water has a major effect upon the
    metabolic rate of “cold blooded” (ectotherms) animals
    Thermal pollution
  31. **One major effect is that warm water holds less oxygen than cold water and
    effects respiration in aquatic organisms.
    – cell respiration – the use of oxygen to help to breakdown foods to release
    – biological oxygen demand (BOD) – the amount of oxygen needed by
    microorganisms to break down sewage and other wastes into carbon dioxide,
    water, and minerals.
    Thermal pollution
  32. the use of oxygen to help to breakdown foods to release
    cell respiration
  33. the amount of oxygen needed by
    microorganisms to break down sewage and other wastes into carbon dioxide,
    water, and minerals.
  34. biological oxygen demand (BOD)
  35. water (lake) with many nutrients – Water in these lakes is
    cloudy and sometimes foul smelling.
  36. Eutrophic
  37. water (lake) with few nutrients – These lakes are clean
    and clear (Crater Lake, Lake Tahoe) and have fewer aquatic organisms.
    Oligo = few or little trophic = nourishment
  38. Oligotrophic
  39. is the process of removing
    undesirable chemicals, materials, and
    biological contaminants from raw water
    Water purification
  40. • Most water is purified for human drinking
    water but may also be designed medical,
    pharmacology, chemical and industrial
  41. • In general the methods used include physical
    • process such as filtration and sedimentation,
    • biological processes such as slow sand filters
    • or activated sludge, chemical process such as
    • flocculation and chlorination and the use of
    • electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet
    • light.
    • • The standards for drinking water quality are
    • set by governments.
  42. • Early attempts at improving water quality missed many disease-causing
    • The discovery that chlorine kills these organisms allowed for greater purity
    and safety in drinking water.
  43. • Drawback…breakdown of chlorine and reactants forming by products are
    • linked to several types of cancer, miscarriages, and rare birth defects.
    • • Modern treatment uses reduced amounts and alternate forms of chlorine
  44. ____
    removes suspended and floating particles by
    mechanical processes.
    – The solid material that settles out at this stage is ____.
    primary treatment, primary sludge.
  45. ____
    uses microorganisms (aerobic bacteria) to
    decompose the suspended organic material.
    – The particles and microorganisms are allowed to settle out after
    several hours, forming a ____.
    secondary treatment, secondary sludge.
  46. is an advanced water treatment method which
    includes a variety of biological, chemical, and physical processes. Takes
    out pollutants left behind from secondary such as minerals, heavy metals,
    viruses, and organic compounds.
    tertiary treatment
  47. 1977 law designed to eliminate the discharge of
    pollutants into U.S. waterways and to make them safe for fishing and
  48. Clean Water Act
  49. 1972 law that was amended and
    became Clean Water Act in 1977.
  50. Water Pollution Control Act
  51. Results of Safe Drinking Water Act and Clean Water Act:
  52. – The great lakes are cleaner than they have been in a long time.
    • – Reports show levels of DDT in women’s breast milk have declined since 1967.
    • – Levels of PCB in trout have decreased and some animal populations including
    • bald eagles have rebounded
  53. Safe Drinking Water Act
  54. • Maximum containment level – the greatest permissible
    • amount of any water pollutant in drinking water that may
    • adversely affect human health.
  55. Clean Water Act
  56. • National emission limitations – maximum permissible
    • levels of water pollutants that can be discharged from sewage
    • treatment plants, factories, and other point sources.
  57. Types of water pollution:
    • 1. sewage
    • 2. disease-causing agents
    • 3. sediment pollution
    • 4. inorganic plant nutrients
    • 5. organic compounds
    • 6. inorganic compounds
    • 7. radioactive substances
    • 8. thermal pollution