Cahn Chapter 10
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non-institutional ______ - the media, parties, interest groups, and political consultants; Policy game is used to suggest that _______ ________ must utilize rational strategies to maximize their interests. The role each actor plays, in combination with the relationship between actors in policy bureaucracies, is ultimately what determines policy outcomes.
Murray Edelman similarly argues that those who seek to maximize their policy interests will use _________ and __________ to manipulate the policy discourse. Maximizing policy strategies is critical for winning the policy game. Each player, regardless of his or her position in the policy environment, seeks to influence public policy outcomes.
deceit and symbolism
State Legislature - the legislature is the central institution in the policy process because of the powers given to it by the state constitution. The Governor and Executive Bureaucracy - The governor is mandated by the California constitution as a partner in the policy process. But unlike the legislature, the governor can only approve or disapprove of legislation, he or she has no power to amend legislation.The policy influence of regulatory agencies within the executive bureaucracy is substantial. The Courts - The influence on judges in interpreting laws has a significant impact on policy. And this impact is not free of political influence. Unlike the federal system, state judges are vulnerable to political scrutiny. This was most dramatically demonstrated in the expulsion of Chief Justice Rose Bird and two of her colleagues in 1984.
institutional policy actors
_____-___________ ___________ _______ also play a significant role: The public elects legislators and executives; the media influences policy through its inherent agenda-setting function; parties influence policy through their role of drafting and electing candidates; and organized interest groups lobby elected officials and non-elected policymakers (e.g., agency staff). Policy, then, is a result of institutional processes influenced by non-institutional actors. The Media - The media are influential to policy outcomes because they help define social realty. California politics relies on the media to distribute political messages. Political Parties - Political parties are distinct from other citizen organizations. Rather than attempt to influence existing policymakers, parties seek to get their own members elected to policymaking positions. While interest groups seek influence on specific policy issues, parties seek influence on a wide spectrum of policy issues. Parties develop platforms, draft candidates, campaign on behalf of candidates, and mobilize voters. In short, parties work to bring citizens together under a common banner. Interest Groups - Interest groups are a fundamental partner in policymaking. Citizens participate in the policy process through communication with policymakers. Such communication takes place individually (e.g., letters to elected representatives) and collectively. Interest groups facilitate collective communication. The most common resources include bureaucratic knowledge, a network of contacts, citizen backing (size of constituency), an ability to make political contributions, and an ability to mount a public relations (media) campaign. Clearly, no group utilizes these resources. But the ability of an organized group to utilize one or more of these resources is critical for policy influence.
non-institutional policy actors
Increasingly, political expertise is purchased by those who have the need and the resources. In reviewing the rise and structure of the political consulting industry, Sabato exposes the fragile relationship between articulating ideas in a political marketplace and manipulating public opinion. It is virtually impossible to win at the policy game without the marketing skills held by consultants and strategists. Like many other policy resources, political consultants are costly. As a consequence, those with greater economic resources enjoy a policy advantage.
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