IS vocab.txt

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IS vocab.txt
2010-12-09 09:29:04
KSU Vocab final

ksu is vocab final
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  1. Organization
    A formal collection of people and other resources established to accomplish a set of goals
  2. Value Chain
    A series (chain) of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service
  3. Organizational Structure
    Organizational subunits and the way they relate to the overall organization
  4. Traditional Organizational Structure
    An organizational structure in which major department head report to a president or top-level manager
  5. Flat organizational Structure
    An organizational structure with a reduced number of management layers
  6. Empowerment
    Giving employees and their managers more responsibility and authority to make decisions, take certain actions, and have more control over their jobs
  7. Project Organizational Structure
    A structure on major products or services
  8. Team organizational structure
    A structure centered on work teams or groups
  9. Virtual Organizational Structure
    A structure that employs individuals, groups, or complete business units in geographically dispersed areas that can last for a few week or years, often requiring telecommunications or the internet
  10. Culture
    A set of major understandings and assumptions shared by a group
  11. Organizational culture
    The major understandings and assumptions for a business, corporation, or other organization
  12. Organizational Change
    how for-profit and nonprofit organizations plan for, implement, and handle change
  13. Change Model
    A representation of change theories that identifies the phases of change and the beset way to implement them
  14. Organizational Learning
    The adaptations to new conditions or alteration of organizational practices over time
  15. Reengineering (process redesign)
    The radical redesign of business processes, organizational structures, information systems, and values of the organization to achieve a breakthrough in business results.
  16. Continuous Improvement
    Constantly seeking ways to improve business processes to add value to products and services
  17. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
    A model that describes the factors leading to higher levels of acceptance and usage of technology
  18. Technology Diffusion
    A measure of how widely technology is spread through the organization
  19. Technology infusion
    the extent to which technology is deeply integrated into an area or department
  20. Quality
    The ability of a product (including services) to meet or exceed customer expectations
  21. Outsourcing
    Contracting with outside professional services to meet specific business needs
  22. On-Demand Computing
    Contracting for computer resources to rapidly respond to an organization�s varying workflow. Also called on-demand business and utility computing.
  23. Downsizing
    Reducing the number of employees to cut costs
  24. Competitive Advantage
    A significant and ideally long-tern benefits to a company over its competitions
  25. Five-forces Model
    A widely accepted model that identifies five key factors that can lead to attainment of competitive advantage, including (1) the rivalry among existing competitors, (2) the threat of new entrants, (3) the threat of substitute products and services, (4)the bargaining power of buyers, and (5) the bargaining power of suppliers
  26. Strategic Alliance (Strategic partnership)
    An agreement between two or more companies that involves the join production and districution of goods and services
  27. Productivity
    • A measure of the output achieved divided by the input required
    • Return on Investment (ROI)
    • One measure of IS value that investigates the additional profits or benefits that are generated as a percentage of the investment in IS technology
  28. Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
    • The measurement of the total cost of owning computer
    • equipment, including desktop computers, networks, and large computers
  29. Information Center
    A support function that provides users with assistance, training, application development, documentation, equipment selection and set-up, standards, technical assistance, and troubleshooting
  30. Information Service Unit
    A miniature IS department
  31. Certification
    A process for testing skills and knowledge, which results in a statement by the certifying authority that confirms an individual is capable of performing a particular kind of job
  32. Information System (IS)
    A set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, store and disseminate data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective
  33. Data
    Raw facts, such as employee number, total hours worked in a week, inventory part numbers, or sales orders
  34. Information
    A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the individual facts
  35. Process
    A set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome
  36. Knowledge
    The awareness and understanding of a set of information and ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision
  37. System
    A set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals
  38. Efficiency
    Measure of what is produced divided by what is consumed
  39. Effectiveness
    A measure of the extent to which a system achieves its goals; it can be computed by dividing the goals actually achieved by the total of the stated goals
  40. System performance standard
    A specific objective of the system
  41. Input
    The activity of gathering and capturing raw data
  42. Processing
    Converting or transforming data into useful outputs
  43. Output
    Production of useful information, usually in the form of documents and reports
  44. Feedback
    Output that is sued to make changes to input or processing activities
  45. Forecasting
    Predicting future events to avoid problems
  46. Computer-based information system (CBIS)
    A single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate store, and process data into information
  47. Technology infrastructure
    All the hardware, software, database, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information
  48. Hardware
    Computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities
  49. Software
    The computer programs that govern the operation of the computer
  50. Database
    An organized collection of facts and information
  51. Telecommunications
    The electronic transmissions of signals for communications, which enables organizations to carry out their processes and tasks through effective computer networks
  52. Networks
    Computers and equipments that are connected in a building, around the country, or around the world to enable electronic communications
  53. Internet
    The world�s largest computer network, consisting of thousands of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information
  54. Intranet
    An internal network based on Web technologies that allows people with an organization to exchange information and work on projects
  55. Extranet
    A network based on Web technologies that allows selected outsiders, such as business partners and customers, to access authorized resources of a company�s intranet
  56. Procedures
    The strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using a CBIS
  57. E-commerce
    Any business transaction executed electronically between companies (business-to-business), companies and consumers (business-to-business), consumers and other consumers (consumer-to-consumer), business and the public sector, and consumers and the public sector
  58. Mobile commerce (m-commerce)
    Transactions conducted anywhere, anytime
  59. Electronic Business (e-business)
    Using information systems and the internet to perform all business-related tasks and functions
  60. Transaction
    Any business-related exchange, such as payments to employees, sales to customers, and payments to supplies
  61. Transaction processing system (TPS)
    An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions
  62. Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system
    A set of integrated programs capable of managing a company�s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization
  63. Decision Support System (DSS)
    An organized collected of people procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making
  64. Knowledge Management System (KMSs)
    Organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices to create, store, share, and use the organization�s knowledge and experience
  65. Artificial Intelligence (AI)
    A field in which the computer system takes on the characteristics of human intelligence
  66. Expert System
    A system that gives a computer the ability to make suggestions and function like an expert in a particular field
  67. Knowledge Base
    The collection of data, rules, procedures, and relationships that must be followed to achieve value or the proper outcome
  68. Virtual Reality
    The simulation of a real or imagined environment that can be experienced visually in three dimensions
  69. Systems Development
    The activity of creating or modifying business systems
  70. Computer Literacy
    Knowledge of computer systems and equipment and the ways they function; it stresses equipment and devices (hardware), programs and instructions (software), databases, and telecommunications
  71. Information systems literacy
    Knowledge of how data and information are used by individuals, groups, and organizations
  72. Hardware
    Any machinery (most of which uses digital circuits) that assists in the inputs, processing, storage, and output activities of an information system
  73. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    the part of the computer that consists of three associated elements: the arithmetic/logic unit, the control unit, and the register areas
  74. Arithmetic/logic Unit (ALU)
    the part of the CPU that performs mathematical calculations and makes logical comparisons
  75. Control Unit
    The part of the CPU that sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data in and out of the ALU, registers, primary storage, and even secondary storage and various output devices
  76. Register
    A high-speed storage area in the CPU used to temporarily hold small units of program instructions and data immediately before, during, and after execution by the CPU
  77. Primary Storage (Main memory; memory)
    The part of the computer that holds program instructions and dta
  78. Instruction Time (I-time)
    The time it takes to perform the fetch-instruction and decode-instruction steps of the instructions phase
  79. Execution Time (E-Time)
    The time it takes to execute an instruction and store the results
  80. Machine Cycle
    The instruction phase followed by the execution phase
  81. Pipelining
    A form of CPU operation in which multiple execution phases are performed in a single machine cycle
  82. MIPS
    Millions of instructions per second, a measure of machine cycle time
  83. Clock speed
    A series of electronic pulses produced at a predetermined rate that affects machine cycle time
  84. Microcode
    Predefined, elementary circuits and logical operations that the processor performs when it executes an instruction
  85. Megahertz (MHz)
    Millions of cycles per second
  86. Gigahertz (GHz)
    Billions of cycles per second
  87. Moore�s Law
    A hypothesis stating that transistor densities on a single chip double every two years
  88. Byte (B)
    Eight bits that together represent a single character of data
  89. Random Access Memory (RAM)
    A form of memory in which instructions or data can be temporarily stored
  90. Read-only memory (ROM)
    A nonvolatile form of memory
  91. Cache Memory
    A type of high-speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory
  92. Multiprocessing
    The simultaneous execution of two or more instructions at the same time
  93. Coprocessor
    The part of the computer that speeds processing by executing specific types of instructions while the CPU works on another processing activity
  94. Multicore microprocessor
    A microprocessor that combines two or more independent processors into a single computer so they can share the workload and improve processing capacity
  95. Parallel Computing
    The simultaneous execution of the same task on multiple processors to obtain results faster
  96. Massively parallel Processing systems
    A form of multiprocessing that speeds processing by linking hundreds or thousands of processors to operate at the same time, or in parallel, with each processor having its own bus, memory, disks, copy of the operating system, and applications
  97. Grid Computing
    The use of a collection of computers, often owned by multiple individuals or organizations, to work in a coordinated manner to solve a common problem
  98. Cloud Computing
    Using a giant cluster of computers to serve as a host to run applications that require high-performance computing
  99. Secondary storage (permanent storage)
    Devices that store larger amounts of data, instructions, and information more permanently than allowed with main memory
  100. Sequential access
    A retrieval method in which data must be accessed in the order in which it is stored
  101. Direct Access
    A retrieval method in which data can be retrieved without the need to read and discard other data
  102. Sequential access storage device (SASD)
    A device used to sequentially access secondary storage data
  103. Direct access storage device (DASD)
    A device used for direct access of secondary storage data
  104. Magnetic Disk
    A common secondary storage medium, with bits represented by magnetized areas
  105. Magnetic Tape
    A secondary storage medium; Mylar film coated with iron oxide with portion of the tape magnetized to represent bits
  106. Redundant Array of Independent/Inexpensive Disks (RAID)
    A method of storing data that generates extra bits of data from existing data, allowing the system to create a �reconstruction map� so that if a hard drive fails, the system can rebuild lost data
  107. Disk Mirroring
    A process of storing data that provides an exact copy that protects users fully in the event of data loss
  108. Virtual Tape
    A storage device that manages less frequently needs data so that it appears to be stored entirely on tape cartridges, although some parts of it might actually be located on faster hard disks
  109. Optic Disk
    A rigid disc of plastic onto which data is recorded by special lasers that physically burn pits in the disc
  110. Compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)
    A common form of optical disc on which data, once it has been recorded, cannot be modified
  111. Digital Video Disc (DVD)
    A storage medium used to store digital video or computer data
  112. Network-attached storage (NAS)
    Storage devices that attach to a network instead of to a single computer
  113. Storage Area Network (SAN)
    The technology that provides high-speed connections between data-storage devices and computers over a network
  114. Policy-based storage management
    Automation of storage using previously defined policies
  115. Data Entry
    Converting human-readable data into a machine-readable form
  116. Data Input
    Transferring machine-readable data into the system
  117. Source Data Automation
    Capturing and editing data where it is initially created and in a form that can be directly input to a computer, thus ensuring accuracy and timeliness
  118. Speech-recognition technology
    Input devices that recognize human speech
  119. Magnetic Stripe Card
    A type of card that stores limited amounts of data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based particles contained in a band on the card
  120. Point-of-sale (POS) device
    A terminal used in retail operations to enter sales information into the computer system
  121. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
    A technology that employs a microchip with an antenna that broadcasts its unique identifier and location to receivers
  122. Pixel
    A dot of color on a photo image or a point of light on a display screen
  123. Plasma Display
    A plasma display uses thousands of smart cells (pixels) consisting of electrodes and neon and xeon gases which are electrically turned into plasma (electrically charged atoms and negatively charged particles) to emit light
  124. LCD display
    Flat display that uses liquid crystals � organic, oil-like material placed between two polarizers � to form characters and graphic images on a backlit screen
  125. Digital Audio Player
    A device that can store, organize, and play digital music files
  126. MP3
    A standard format for compressing a sound sequence into a small file
  127. Handheld Computer
    A single-user computer that provides ease of portability because of its small size
  128. Smartphone
    A phone that combines the functionality of a mobile phone, personal digital assistant, camera, Web browser, e-mail tool, and other devices into a single handheld devce
  129. Portable Computer
    A computer small enough to be carried easily
  130. Thin Client
    A low-cost, centrally managed computer with essential but limited capabilities and no extra drives, such as a CD or DVD drive, or expansion slots
  131. Desktop Computer
    A relatively small, inexpensive, single-user computer that is highly versatile
  132. Workstation
    A more powerful personal computer that is used for technical computing, such as engineering, but still fits on a desktop
  133. Server
    A computer designed for a specific task, such as network or Internet applications
  134. Scalability
    The ability to increase the capability of a computer system to process more transactions in a given period by adding more, or more powerful, processors
  135. Blade Server
    A server that houses many individual computer motherboards that include one or more processors, computer memory, computer storage, and computer network connections
  136. Mainframe Computer
    A large, powerful computer often shared by hundreds of concurrent users connected to the machine via terminals
  137. Supercomputers
    The most powerful computer systems with the fastest processing speeds
  138. Computer Programs
    Sequences of instructions for the computer
  139. Documentation
    The text that describes the program functions to help the user operate the computer system
  140. Personal Sphere of Influence
    The sphere of influence that serves the needs of an individual user
  141. Personal Productivity Software
    The software that enables users to improve their personal effectiveness, increasing the amount of work they can perform and enhancing its quality
  142. Workgroup
    Two or more people who work together to achieve a common goal
  143. Workgroup Sphere of Influence
    The sphere of influence that serves the needs of workgroup
  144. Enterprise sphere of influence
    The sphere of influence that serves the needs of the firm in its interaction with its environment
  145. Operating system (OS)
    A set of computer programs that controls the computer hardware and acts as an interface with application programs
  146. Kernel
    The heart of the operating system, which controls the most critical processes
  147. User interface
    The elements of the operating system that allows you to access and command the computer system
  148. Command-based user interface
    A user interface that requires you to give text commands to the computer to perform basic activities
  149. Graphical user Interface (GUI)
    An interface that uses icons and menus displayed on screen to send commands to the computer system
  150. Application Program Interface (API)
    An interface that allows applications to make use of the operating system
  151. Utility Programs
    Programs that help to perform maintenance or correct problems with a computer system
  152. Middleware
    Software that allows different systems to communicate and exchange data
  153. Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)
    A modular method of developing software and systems that allows users to interact with systems, and systems to interact with each other
  154. Application Service Provider (ASP)
    a company that provides software, support, and the computer hardware on which to run the software from the user�s facilities over a network
  155. Software as a Service (SaaS)
    A service that allows businesses to subscribe to Web-delivered business application software by paying a monthly service charge or a per-use fee
  156. Software Suite
    A collection of single application program packages in a bundle
  157. Workgroup Application Software
    Software that supports teamwork, whether in one location or around the world
  158. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Software
    A set of integrated programs that manage a company�s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization
  159. Programming Languages
    Set of keywords, symbols, and a system of rules for constructing statements by which humans can communicate instructions to be executed by a computer
  160. Syntax
    A set of rules associated with a programming language
  161. Compiler
    A special software program that converts the programmer�s source code into the machine-language instructions consisting of binary digits
  162. Single-User License
    A software license that permits only one person to use the software, typically on only one computer
  163. Open-source Software
    Software that is freely available to anyone in a form that can be easily modified
  164. Shareware and Freeware
    Software that is very inexpensive or free, but whose source code cannot be modified
  165. Character
    A basic building block of information, consisting of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numeric digits, or special symbols
  166. Field
    Typically a name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity
  167. Record
    A collection of related data fields
  168. File
    A collection of related records
  169. Hierarchy of Data
    Bits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases
  170. Entity
    A generalized class of people, places, or things for which data is collected, stored, and maintained
  171. Attribute
    A characteristic of an entity
  172. Data Item
    The specific value of an attribute
  173. Key
    A field or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record
  174. Primary Key
    A field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record
  175. Traditional Approach to data Management
    An approach whereby separate data files are created and stored for each application program
  176. Database Approach to Data Management
    An approach whereby a pool of related data is shared by multiple application programs
  177. Planned Data Redundancy
    A way of organizing data in which the logical database design is altered so that certain data entities are combined, summary totals are carried in the data records rather than calculated from elemental data, and some data attributes are repeated in more than one data entity to improve database performance
  178. Data Model
    A diagram of data entities and their relationships
  179. Enterprise Data Modeling
    Data modeling done at the level of the entire enterprise
  180. Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagram
    Data models that use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships between data
  181. Relational Model
    A database model that describes data in which all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables, called relations, which are the logical equivalent of files
  182. Domain
    The allowable value for data attributes
  183. Selecting
    Manipulating data to eliminate rows according to certain criteria
  184. Projecting
    Manipulating data to eliminate columns in a table
  185. Joining
    Manipulating data to combine two or more tables
  186. Linking
    Data manipulation that combines two or more tables using common data attributes to form a new table with only the unique data attributes
  187. Data Cleanup
    The process of looking for and fixing inconsistencies to ensure that data is accurate and complete
  188. Schema
    A description of the entire database
  189. Data Definition Language (DDL)
    A collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and relationships in a specific database
  190. Data Dictionary
    A detailed description of all the data used in the database
  191. Concurrency Control
    A method of dealing with a situation in which two or more people need to access the same record in a database at the same time
  192. Data Manipulation Language (DML)
    The commands that are used to manipulate the data in a database
  193. Data Administrator
    A nontechnical position responsible for defining and implementing consistent principles for a variety of data issues
  194. Data Warehouse
    A database that collects business information from many sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the company�s processes, products, and customers
  195. Data Mart
    A subset of a data warehouse
  196. Data Mining
    An information-analysis tool that involves the automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse
  197. Predictive Analysis
    A form of data mining that combines historical data with assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as failure product sales or the probability that a customer will default on a loan
  198. Business Intelligence
    The process of gathering enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on business strategy, tactics, or operations
  199. Competitive Intelligence
    One aspect of business intelligence limited to information about competitors and the ways that knowledge affects strategy, tactics, and operations
  200. Counterintelligence
    The steps an organization takes to protect information sought by �hostile� intelligence gatherers
  201. Distributed Database
    A database in which the data can be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices
  202. Replicated Database
    A database that holds a duplicate set of frequently used data
  203. Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
    Software that allows users to explore data from a number of perspectives
  204. Object-Oriented Database
    A database that stores both data and its processing instructions
  205. Object-Oriented Database Management System (OOB)
    A group of programs that manipulate an object-oriented database and provide a user interface and connections to other application programs
  206. Object-Relationship Database Management System (ORDBMS)
    A DBMS capable of manipulating audio, video, and graphical data
  207. Telecommunications Medium
    Any material substance that carries an electronic signal and serves as an interface between a sending device and a receiving device
  208. Telecommunications Protocol
    A set of rules that governs the exchange of information over a communications medium