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According to Freud, the Personality Structure contains (3) parts:
- Represents the basic drive to survive and be aggressive
- Freud called this the pleasure principal
- Wants instant gratification
- Has childlike qualities & naïveté to it
- Can also be a tyrant
- Voice of conscious
- Develops around age 4 or 5
- The ideal principal
- Uses words like ought and should
- Personality executor or the manager of the 3 (personality styles)
- Operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure & pain
- The reality principal deals with the reality of the situation.
- Seeks gratification in more realistic ways.
- Very rational and objective.
The childhood stages of development during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Refer to Table 12.1 Freud's Psychosexual Stages on p.424.
Pleasure centers on the mouth - sucking, biting, chewing
Oral (0-18 months)
Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
Anal (18-36 months)
(Oedipus Complex - Males; Electra - Females) Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
Phallic (3-6 years)
Dormant sexual feelings; this is where you begin to identify with the same sex. Ex. Little boys play with little boys; girls play with girls
Latency (6 to puberty)
Maturation of sexual interests; about the intimacy
Genital (puberty on)
Comes from the loving construct
Comes from the death construct
In pshychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconciously distorting reality
Unconsciously pushing threatening memories, urges, or ideas from conscious awareness: A person may experience loss of memory for unpleasant events.
Attempts to make actions or mistakes seem reasonable: The reasons or excuses given (e.g., “I spank my children because it is good for them.”) sounds rational, but they are not the real reasons for the behavior.
Unconsciously attributing one’s own unacceptable thoughts or impulses to another person: Instead of recognizing that “I hate him”, a person may feel that “He hates me.”
Defending against unacceptable impulses by acting opposite to them: Sexual interest in a married friend might appear as strong dislike instead.
Converting unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions, and perhaps symbolically expressing them: Sexual or aggressive desires may appear as artistic creativity or devotion to athletic excellence.
Deflecting an impulse from its original target to a less threatening one: Anger at one's boss may be expressed through hostility toward a clerk, a family member, or even the dog.
Simply discounting the existence of threatening impulses: A person may vehemently deny ever having had even the slightest degree of physical attraction to a person of the same sex.
Striving to make up for unconscious impulses or fears: A business executive’s extreme competitiveness might be aimed at compensating for unconscious feelings of inferiority.
The 7th leading cause of death is _____________.
Characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
- Discontent with Freud’s negative perspective.
- Humanistic people were bored with the trait and behavior learning theories. Thought the Classical & Operant Learning systems
2 reasons Humanism came about
- Trait Perspective
- Humanistic Perspective
- Social Cognitive Perspective
3 Perspectives of Personality Styles
Things Known by Others & Known by Self - Arena
Things Known by Others & Not Known by Self - Blind
Things Not Known by Others & Known by Self - Hidden
Things Not Known by Others & Not Known by Self - Unknown
Johari Window (Joe --> Harry --> Ingram)
- Self Actualization - the process of fulfilling our potential
- Studied by Abraham Maslow
Characteristics of Self-Actualized people:
- - Self-aware & Self-accepting
- - Open & spontaneous
- - Loving & caring
- - Not paralyzed by others' opinions
- - Secure in their sense of who they were, their interests were problem-centered rather than self-centered.
A drive inside of you; the need to know about certain things.
What you find beautiful; something that brings peace.
Living to your fullest potential; being all you can be.
Could be talking to someone that is dead, ESP, something that happens in a dreamlike state.
Being Needs (What make your heart smile)
2. Self Actualization
3. Asthetic Value
Deficiency Needs (Self-Centered)
5. Esteem Needs
6. Love & Belonging
7. Safety & Security
(Listed in order from that of greatest to least importance.)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
- Solution Needs
- An attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
- Carl Rogers introduced this term; he believed that people were basically good & endowed with self-actualizing tendancies.
Unconditional positive regard
Unconditional Positive Regard has (3) parts:
- 1. Genuineness
- 2. Acceptance
- 3. Empathy
Being open with our feelings, dropping our facades, being transparent and self-disclosing.
I accept you as you are and I see you who you are. You accept the person but not the action.
- I understand what you are going through.
- I have an idea of what you are going through.
- Know thyself.
My thoughts and feelings about who I am; how I think and feel about myself.
What I feel about my worth and value; am I a valuable person?
Our readiness to see ourselves favorably (having an excuse for something you did, being self-centered)
- Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and thier social context.
- Albert Bandura
Process of interacting with our environment
Our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless.
Other people take control of my fate.
External Locus of Control
I take control of my own fate.
Internal Locus of Control
As a result of External Locus of Control, the term __________ __________ came about.
- You have given up on yourself
- There are no helpless victims
- You are the only one that can fix you
- You have no power over your life