OB Final- Chapter 8-10

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OB Final- Chapter 8-10
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2010-12-09 17:16:46
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OB Final
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  1. Personality
    The structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior.
  2. Cultural values
    The shared beliefs about desirable end states or modes of conduct in a given culture.
  3. Ability
    The relatively stable capabilities people have to perform a particular range of different but related activities
  4. What does CANOE stand for?
    • Conscientiousness
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism
    • Openness
    • Extraversion
  5. Conscientiousness
    • Dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, and persevering
    • Accomplishment-striving
  6. Agreeableness
    • Warm, kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, and courteous
    • Prioritize communion striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing personality.
  7. Extraversion
    • Talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant
    • Prioritize status striving, which reflects a strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure as a means of expressing personality
    • Tend to be high in what’s called positive affectivity
  8. Neuroticism
    • Nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, and jealous.
    • Synonymous with negative affectivity —a dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods such as hostility, nervousness, and annoyance
    • Neuroticism is also strongly related to locus of control, which reflects whether people attribute the causes of events to themselves or to the external environment.
  9. Openness to experience
    • Curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, and sophisticated
    • Openness to experience is also more likely to be valuable in jobs that require high levels of creativity, defined as the capacity to generate novel and useful ideas and solutions.
  10. Locus of control
    Which reflects whether people attribute the causes of events to themselves or to the external environment.
  11. Cognitive abilities
    Capabilities related to the acquisition and application of knowledge in problem solving.
  12. Verbal ability
    • To various capabilities associated with understanding and expressing oral and written communication.
    • Oral comprehension is the ability to understand spoken words and sentences.
    • Written comprehension is the ability to understand written words and sentences.
    • Oral expression refers to the ability to communicate ideas by speaking
    • Written expression refers to the ability to communicate ideas in writing.
  13. Quantitative ability
    • Two types of mathematical capabilities.
    • Number facility is the capability to do simple math operations (adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing).
    • Mathematical reasoning refers to the ability to choose and apply formulas to solve problems that involve numbers.
  14. Reasoning ability
    • A diverse set of abilities associated with sensing and solving problems using insight, rules, and logic.
    • Problem sensitivity is the ability to sense that there’s a problem or likely will be one.
    • Deductive reasoning refers to the use of general rules to solve problems.
    • Inductive reasoning refers to the ability to consider several specific pieces of information and then reach a more general conclusion regarding how those pieces are related.
    • Originality refers to the ability to develop clever and novel ways to solve problems.
  15. Spatial ability
    • Spatial orientation refers to having a good understanding of where one is relative to other things in the environment.
    • Visualization is the ability to imagine how separate things will look if they were put together in a particular way.
  16. Perceptual abilities
    • Being able to perceive, understand, and recall patterns of information.
    • Speed and flexibility of closure refers to being able to pick out a pattern of information quickly in the presence of distracting information, even without all the information present.
    • Perceptual speed refers to being able to examine and compare numbers, letters, and objects quickly.
  17. Team
    Consists of two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose.
  18. Five Team Types
    • Work Teams
    • Management Teams
    • Parallel Teams
    • Project Teams
    • Action Teams
  19. Work teams
    • Designed to be relatively permanent.
    • Purpose is to produce goods or provide services, and they generally require a full-time commitment from their members.
  20. Management teams
    • Designed to be relatively permanent.
    • Responsible for coordinating the activities of organizational subunits—typically departments or functional areas—to help the organization achieve its long-term goals.
  21. Parallel teams
    Composed of members from various jobs who provide recommendations to managers about important issues that run “parallel” to the organization’s production process.
  22. Project teams
    Formed to take on “one-time” tasks that are generally complex and require a lot of input from members with different types of training and expertise.
  23. Action teams
    Perform tasks that are normally limited in duration. However, those tasks are quite complex and take place in contexts that are either highly visible to an audience or of a highly challenging nature.
  24. Four stages of team development
    • Forming
    • Storming
    • Norming
    • Performing
  25. Forming
    Try to understand the boundaries in the team and get a feel for what is expected of them.
  26. Storming
    Remain committed to ideas, triggers conflict that affects some relationships and harms the team’s progress
  27. Norming
    Realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals
  28. Performing
    Members are comfortable working within their roles, and the team makes progress toward goals
  29. Three types of roles
    • Team task roles
    • Team building roles
    • Individualistic roles
  30. Team task roles
    Behaviors that directly facilitate the accomplishment of team tasks
  31. Team building roles
    Behaviors that influence the quality of the team’s social climate
  32. Individualistic roles
    Behaviors that benefit the individual at the expense of the team
  33. Task interdependence
    Refers the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team.
  34. Types of task interdependence
    • Pooled interdependence
    • Sequential interdependence
    • Reciprocal interdependence
    • Comprehensive interdependence
  35. Pooled interdependence
    Requires lowest degree of required coordination, members complete their work assignments independently, and then this work is simply “piled up” to represent the group’s output
  36. Sequential interdependence
    Requires different tasks to be done in a prescribed order, interact to carry out their work, the interaction only occurs between members who perform tasks that are next to each other in the sequence.
  37. Reciprocal interdependence
    Requires members are specialized to perform specific tasks. However, instead of a strict sequence of activities, members interact with a subset of other members to complete the team’s work.
  38. Comprehensive interdependence
    Requires the highest level of interaction and coordination among members. Each member has a great deal of discretion in terms of what they do and with whom they interact in the course of the collaboration involved in accomplishing the team’s work
  39. Leadership
    The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement
  40. Power
    Can be defined as the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return
  41. Three Types of Organizational Power
    • Legitimate
    • Reward
    • Coercive
  42. Legitimate Power
    Derived from a position of authority inside the organization and is sometimes referred to as “formal authority.”
  43. Reward Power
    Exists when someone has control over the resources or rewards another person wants.
  44. Coercive power
    Exists when a person has control over punishments in an organization
  45. Two Types of Personal Power
    • Expert
    • Referent
  46. Expert power
    Is derived from a person’s expertise, skill, or knowledge on which others depend
  47. Referent Power
    Exists when others have a desire to identify and be associated with a person.
  48. Eight types of influence tactics
    • Rational persuasion
    • Inspirational appeal
    • Consultation
    • Collaboration
    • Ingratiation
    • Personal appeals
    • Exchange
    • Apprising
    • Pressure
    • Coalitions
  49. Rational Persuasion
    • The use of logical arguments and hard facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one.
    • Most effective
  50. Inspirational appeals
    • A tactic designed to appeal to the target’s values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction
    • Most effective
  51. Consultation
    • Occurs when the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request.
    • Most effective
  52. Collaboration
    • Attempting to make it easier for the target to complete the request
    • Most effective
  53. Ingratiation
    • The use of favors, complements, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer
    • Moderately effective
  54. Personal Appeals
    • When the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty
    • Moderately effective
  55. Exchange
    • Used when the requestor offers a reward or resource to the target in return for performing a request
    • Moderately effective
  56. Apprising
    • When the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally
    • Moderately effective
  57. Pressure
    • The use of coercive power through threats and demands
    • Lease effective
  58. Coalitions
    • Occurs when the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target
    • Lease effective

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