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Formally dictates how jobs and tasks are divided and coordinated between individuals and groups within the company
Elements of Organizational Structure
- Work specialization
- Chain of Command
- Span of Control
- The way in which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs.
- Also known as division of labor.
- Assembly line worker
Chain of Command
- In an organization essentially answers the question “Who reports to whom?”
- Specific flow of authority down through the levels of an organization’s structure
Span of Control
- Represents how many employees the manager is responsible for in the organization.
- Narrow spans of control allow managers to be much more hands-on with employees
Refers to where decisions are formally made in organizations
When there are many specific rules and procedures used to standardize behaviors and decisions
- Efficient, rigid, predictable, and standardized organizations that thrive in stable environments
- Rigid and hierarchical chain of command, high degrees of work specialization, centralization of decision making, and narrow spans of control.
- Flexible, adaptive, outward-focused organizations that thrive in dynamic environments
- Low levels of formalization, weak or multiple chains of command, low levels of work specialization, and wide spans of control
The most common form of organizational design, primarily because there are more small organizations than large ones
An organizational form that exhibits many of the facets of the mechanistic organization
An organizational form in which employees are grouped by the functions they perform for the organization
Structures are bureaucratic organizational forms in which employees are grouped into divisions around products, geographic regions, or clients
Generally based around the different locations where the company does business
A more complex form of organizational design that tries to take advantage of two types of structures at the same time
The shared social knowledge within an organization regarding the rules, norms, and values that shape the attitudes and behaviors of its employees
Three Major Components of Organizational Culture
- Observable Artifacts
- Espoused values
- Basic underlying assumptions
- The manifestations of an organization’s culture that employees can easily see or talk about
- Symbols can be found throughout an organization, from its corporate logo to the images it places on its Web site to the uniforms its employees wear
- Physical structures are the organization’s buildings and internal office designs
- Language reflects the jargon, slang, and slogans used within the walls of an organization.
The beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company explicitly states.Published documents, verbal statements made to employees by managers
Basic underlying assumptions
Taken-for-granted beliefs and philosophies that are so ingrained that employees simply act on them rather than questioning the validity of their behavior in a given situation
Four Types of General Culture Types
- Fragmented Culture
- Mercenary Culture
- Communal Culture
- Networked Culture
An organizational culture type in which employees are distant and disconnected from one another
An organizational culture type in which employees think alike but are not friendly to one another
An organizational culture type in which employees are friendly to one another, but everyone thinks differently and does his or her own thing
An organizational culture type in which employees are friendly to one another and all think alike