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Question 1 Part 1
Describe two benefits of earth's winds
- 1)Winds transport nutrients. Wind carrys dust that is rich in phosphates and iron across the Atlantic Ocean from the Sahara Desert in West Africa. These deposits help make soil richer
- 2)Wind is an important factor in earth's climate. It is part of the planet's circulatory system of heat, and moisture.
Question 1 Part 2
Describe two harmful effects of earth's winds.
- 1)Winds transport harmful substances. Particles of reddish-brown soil and pesticide are blown from Africa's deserts and are and accumulate over Flordia causing degration of coral reef.
- 2)Pollutents are carried in the wind. Dust, soot, and other long-lived air pollutants from rapidly industrializing China ana Asia are blown over the pacific and degrade air quality in the western US.
Question 2 Part 1
Distinguish between Weather and Climate.
- Weather is a short term change in a variety an area's conditions such as wind, temperature, humidity, precipitation, etc.
- Climate is a description how these conditions relate to an area on average.
Question 2 Part 2
Describe three major factors that determin how air circulates in the lower atmosphere.
- 1)Uneven heating of the earth's surface by the sun. The heat is highest at the equator and must be distributed to colder regions of the earth by air circulation.
- 2)Earth's rotation causes the warmer air above the equator to be deflected to the west or east as it moves to the polar regions.
- 3The evaporation of water in warmer regions creates convection cells that circulate air & heat.
Question 2 Part 3
Describe how the properties of air, water, and land affect global air circulation.
- Prevailing Winds blow over the ocean surface and produce currents.
- The Oceans absorb heat from the earth's air circulation patterns; mostly in tropical regions.
- Irregulary shaped continents interrupt these curents and cause them to flow in roughly circular patterns between the continents.
Question 2 Part 4
How is heat distributed to different parts of the ocean?
As prevailing winds blow over the ocean surface, it produces currents. These ocean currents redistribute heat from the warmer waters at the equator into colder regions. Water also mixes vertically as denser colder water sinks and warmer water rises.
Question 2 Part 5
Explain how global air circulation and ocean currents lead to the forests, grassland, and deserts that make up the earth's terrestrial biomes.
The exchange of heat and water in the air currents and ocean currents causes an uneven distribution of this heat and moisture which leads to the different biomes.
Question 3 Part 1
Define and give at least 4 examples of greenhouse gases.
Greenhouse gases are gases in the earth's lower atmosphere (troposphere) that cause the greenhouse effect. Some examples are carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozon, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide.
Question 3 Part 2
What is the greenhouse effect?
The greenhouse effect is a natural effect that releases heat in the atmosphere (troposphere) near the earth's surface.
Explain why there are three different types of each of the major biomes. (deserts, grasslands, and forests)
Biomes are further split into subcatagories because each have very different factors. They Vary in temperature, precipitation, types of veggitation, and diversity of animal species.
Describe how the three major types of deserts differ in their climate and vegetation.
- Tropical deserts hot and dry most of the year. They have few plants.
- Tempret deserts are hot in the summer and low in the winter, with more precipitation than tropical. The sparse vegetation consists mainly of widely dispersed drought resistant shrubs.
- Cold deserts have cold winter and summers ard warm summers and low precipitation. Desert plants have adaptations to help them get water.
Question 6 Part 1
Describe how the three major types of grasslands differ in their climates and vegetation.
- Tropical Grasslands have widely scattered clumps of trees and plants. The temperature is warm year round with alternating wet and rainy seasons.
- Tempret Grasslands have bitterly cold winter and hot dry summers, the annual precipitation is sparse and falls unevenly
- Cold Grasslands treeless plains sweept with bitterly cold winds and what precipitation that falls is usually snow. There is a thick spongy mat of low-growing plant under the ice.
Question 6 Part 2
Why have many of the tempret grasslands disappeared?
Their fertile soils are useful for growing crops and grazing cattle.
Question 6 Part 3
What is permafrost?
Permafrost is a perennially frozen layer of the soil that forms when the water there frezes. It is found in arctic tundra.
What is chaparral? Why is it a risky place to live?
A Chaparral is a coastal region that borders a desert. Closness to the sea provides a slightly longer winter rainy season, and fog during the spring and fall reduce evaporation. The dense vegetation makes these areas prone to forest fires.
Question 8 Part 1
Describe how the three major types of forests differ in their vegetation and climate.
- Tropical rain forests are hot, humid and rainy year round. Thick trees and vines that grow up then block out sunlight from the floor and cause little vegetation to grow there.
- Temperate forests winters are long, dry and extremely cold. Summers are short, with cool to warm temperatures. Coniferous evergreen trees dominate the forest.
- Taiga have ample rainfall or moisture from dense ocean fogs. These forests are covered with coniferous forests.
Question 8 Part 2
Why is the biodiversity so high in tropical rain forests?
The fairly constant warm and wet climate is ideal for a wide variety of plants and animals
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