Pyschology Ch. 2

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Pyschology Ch. 2
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2010-01-28 01:47:03
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pyschology ch. 2
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  1. Diffusion of responsibility
    a psychological state in which each person feels decreased personal responsibility for intervening. Darley and Latane reasoned that that the presence of multiple bystanders produced this in the Kitty Genovese murder.
  2. Thinking scientifically
    • Curiosity
    • Skepticism
    • Open-mindedness
  3. Steps in scientific process
    Curiosity

    forming a hypothesis

    Conducting research

    Analyze Data, Draw Conclusions and report findings

    Build a body of knowledge
  4. Hypotheses
    A specific prediction about some phenomenon
  5. Theory
    A set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another.
  6. Hindsight
    After the-Fact understanding
  7. What are the advantages of and disadvantages of hindsight?
    Disadvantage-past events usually can be explained in many ways, its hard to know which is correct.

    Advantage-can provide insights
  8. Variable
    factor that can vary
  9. Operational Definition
    defines a variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it.
  10. Social desirability bias
    the tendancy to respond in a socially acceptable manner rather than according to how one truly feels or behaves.
  11. Unobtrusive measures
    which record behavior in a way that keeps participants unaware that they are being observed.
  12. Archival measures
    records or documents that already exist.
  13. APA Ethics Code
    ethical guidelines for biomedical and behavioral research.
  14. Descriptive research
    seeks to identify how humans and other animals behave in natural settings.
  15. case study
    in-depth analysis of and individual, group, or event.
  16. naturalistic observation
    observing behavior as it occurs in a natural setting and attempts to avoid influencing that behavior.
  17. Representative sample
    one that reflects the important characteristics of the population.
  18. Random sampling
    every memeber of a population has an equal probablity of being chosen to participate in the survey.
  19. Scatterplots
    graphs that show the correlation between two variables
  20. Independent variable
    refers to the factor that is manipulated or controlled by the experimenter.
  21. Dependent variable
    factor that is measure by the experimenter and that may be influenced by the independent variable.
  22. random assignment
    a procedure in which each participand has an equal liklihood of being assigned to any on e group within a experiment.
  23. counterbalancing
    a procedure in which the order of conditions is varied so that no condition has an over all advantage relative to the others.
  24. Internal validity
    the degree to which an experiment supports clear causal conclusions
  25. confounding of variables
    two variables are intertwined in such a way that we cannot determine which one has influenced a dependent variable.
  26. Placebo
    substance that has no pharmacological effect
  27. Placebo effect
    People receiving a treatment show a change in behavior because of their expectations, not because the treatment itself had any specific benefit.
  28. experimenter expectancy effects
    the unintentional ways researchers influence their participants to respond in a manner that is consistent with the researcher's hypothesis.
  29. double-blind procedure
    both the participant and experimenter are kept blind as to which experimental condition the participant is in.
  30. external validity
    results of a study can be generalized to other populations, settings and conditions
  31. Replication
    process or repeating astudy to determine whether the original findings can be duplicated.
  32. Descriptive statistics
    allows us to summarize and describe the characteristics of a set of data.
  33. Mode
    most frequently occurring score in a distribution.
  34. Median
    middle score
  35. Mean
    average of scores
  36. range
    difference between highest and lowest scores in a distribution
  37. Standard deviation
    takes ininto account how much each score is a distribution differs from the mean.
  38. Inferential statistics
    tells us how confident we can be in making inferences about apopulation based on findings obtained from a sample.
  39. Statistical significance
    means that it is very unlikely that a particular finding occurred by chance alone.
  40. meta-analysis
    statistical procedure for combining the results of different studies that examine the same topic.

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