259; a monk who wrote the Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation and was perhaps the best history written in the medieval period. His work was one of many historical writings used in an effort by Charlemagne to introduce learning and the arts into Europe.
Three Estates -
342; Societal structure in the middle ages into which one is born into a specific place in society. The first estate is the church and clergy, and their responsibility is to pray. The second estate is the nobility, and their responsibility is to fight and rule. The third estate is the commoners, and their responsibility is to work.
Three-crop rotation system-
269; farmers divided land into three sections. Two sections were dedicated to grain and the third was used for the alternative crop. This allowed for greater food production.
Tours and Poitiers-
Poitiers was a location of one of a handful of battles the English won over the French due to the large contingent of commoners in the English army and the introduction of the long bow. (Crecy is another example of a similar battle.)
smaller units of loyalty who were under the lord. They were part of smaller groups who were loyal to lords.
328; great roman epic poet who was the guide of Dante in Divine Comedy in the first part of the book. Wrote the Aeneid.
were made to provide power to turn mills and make grinding grains easier. They also saved a great deal of manual and animal labor because they provided power for manufacturing needs. Invented in 1185 during a growth in agriculture.