discovered by John Newland; trend that showed properties of elements seemed to repeat after every eigth element
law of octaves
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties
law that states repeating physical and chemical properties of elements change periodically with their atomic number
electron that is found in the outermost shell of an atom and that determines the atom's chemical properties
horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
elements in groups 1, 2, and 13-18; about half are metals and at room temp & atmospheric pressure, many are solids, while some are liquids or gases
Alkaline earth metals
elements in group 1 of the periodic table; lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium; they react with water to make alkaline solutions. They have one valence electron which make them very reactive. They are never found in nature and they are good conductors of electricity
Elements of Group 2 of the periodic table(Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, and Radium)
-usually found as compounds rather than pure elements
(what does this stand for and what are the units?)
King Henry Died Monday Drinking Chocolate Milk
Kilo, Hecto, Deka, Meter, Liter, Gram, Deci, Centi, Milli
In Scientific Notation, will this number get smaller or larger?
7.2 x 10-5
the number will get smaller. it is .000072
In Scientific notation will this number be large or smaller?
9.5 x 105
the number will get larger. it is 930,000
what are the smaller parts of an atom called?
Name the charge and location of each part of an atom:
1)outside the nucleus, has a negative charge
2)found in the nucleus of an atom and has a positive charge
3)also found in the nucleus and has no charge;it is neutral
The number of these in the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines an element's properties. The number of electrons is equal to the number of these.
The atom's central region which is made up of protons and neutrons
Law that states the closer two charges are, the greater the force between them is.
the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons of the nucleus of an atom.
mass number-atomic number=?
number of neutrons
all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
the lowest state pf a quantized system
a state in which an atom has more energy than it does in the ground state
the principle that states that two or more particles of a certain class cannot be in the exact same energy state
Pauli Exclusion Principle (p.96)
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
Principle that states that electrons fill orbitals that have the lowest energy first
This rule states that each orbital is occupied before any pairing occurs
Atomic mass is expressed in ____?
AMU or atomic mass unit
Is the SI unit to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms in 12g of carbon-12
The mass in 1 mol of a substance
6.022 x 1023 aka the number of atoms of molecules in 1 mol
elements of group 17 of the periodic table which combine with most metals to form salts
Elements of group 18 that are unreactive and have eight electrons in its outer shell
Groups 3-12 of the periodic table that are less reactive than the alkali and alkail-earth metals. They are good conductors of heat and are malleable
a solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals
The total energy content of a sample
Measurement of heat-related constants like specific heat or latent heat
a measurement of the randomness or disorder of a system
energy in a system that is avaliable for work (aka free energy)