Chapter 22

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Author:
corirussell
ID:
54733
Filename:
Chapter 22
Updated:
2010-12-09 23:23:10
Tags:
Pharmacology
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Description:
Respiratory and Gastrointestinal Drugs
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  1. Asthma
    • Reversible
    • Associated with reduction in expiratory airflow
    • Exacerbated by allergens, exercise, stress, upper respiratory infection
  2. COPD
    • Irreversible
    • Chronic bronchitis-inflammed airways, excessive septum production
    • Emphysema-alveolar destruction, airspace enlargement, airway collapse
  3. COPD and Nitrous
    Never give nitrous or oxygen to a patient with COPD
  4. Treatment
    • Fight for flight drugs
    • Beta 2 agonist, non-selective beta agonist, corticosteroids, anticholinergics
  5. Drugs used for treatment
    • Non-selective adrenergic agonist
    • Epi-effects all receptors
    • Isoproterenol-effects both beta receptors
  6. Albuterol
    • Selective Beta 2 agonist
    • First line of treatment for mild occasional attacks
    • Only use for acute problems
  7. Salmeterol
    • Takes 10-20 minutes to work
    • Works for 2-12 hours
  8. Alpha and Beta-Agonist
    Epinephrine- Primatene, Bronkaid
  9. Non-selective Beta Agonist
    • Isoproterenol- Isuprel, Medihaler-Iso
    • Other names for albuterol
  10. Beta 2 Agonist
    • Albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin)
    • Metaproterenol (Alupent, Metaprel)
    • Salmeterol (Serevent)
  11. Other treatment
    • Anticholinergic is the first drug of choice for treating COPD
    • Theophylline is used for chronic asthma, like semeterol
    • Anticholinergic, epi, beta 2 agonists, non-specific beta agonists
  12. Upper Respiratory Infection Drugs
    • Nasal Decongestants- alpha effect, sudafed
    • Expectorants and Mucolytics- Guaifenesin, robitussin
    • Antitussives-anti-cough
  13. Dental Implications
    • Stress should be minimized
    • Adrenal Supplements if indicated
    • Nitrous caution with COPD
    • Aspirin should be avoided
    • Candidiasis
    • Avoid erythromycin and theophylline
    • Rule of 2's
  14. GERD
    • Acid Reflux
    • Avoid eating 4 hours before bed, eat smaller meals, sleep with several pillows
    • Decrease Stomach Acid- h2 blockers
    • Surgery to make sphincter tighter
    • Usually related to Helicobacter pylori
  15. GI Meds
    • H2 blockers
    • Proton Pump Inhibitors
    • Anti-infective ulcer therapy
    • Antacids
    • Laxatives and Anti-diarrheals
    • Emetics and Anti-emetics
    • IBS meds
  16. Chronics Inflammatory Bowel
    • Crohn's Disease-extends through all layers
    • Ulcerative Colitis-only involves mucosa
    • Use NSAIDS with caution

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