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  1. a fetus with XX chromosomes will normally develop female gonads or _____.
  2. a fetus with XY chromosomes will normally develop male gonads or _____ which secrete the hormone _____.
    testes, testosterone
  3. a fetus with XY chromosomes will not develop male internal reproductive structures unless there are two substances present. these are _____ to develop the male structures and _____ to inhibit the development of the female system.
    testosterone, MIH (mullerian inhibiting hormone)
  4. the female system is the _____ system and the male system is the _____.
    Mullerian, Wolffian
  5. a derivative of testosterone, _____ masculinizes the external genitalia.
    dihydrotestosterone (dht)
  6. at puberty, the hypothalamus begins to secrete a releasing factor _____ _____ _____ which triggers the pituitary to secrete _____ and _____.
    • gonadotropin releasing-factor hormone,
    • FSH (follicle stimulating hormone),
    • and LH (lutenizing hormone)
  7. hormones are gonadotropins and act on the _____ in the male and the _____ in the female.
    testes, ovaries
  8. holds sperm during maturation
  9. produces semen (2 words)
    seminal vesicles
  10. produces semen (1 word)
  11. pre-ejaculatory fluid
    cowper's gland
  12. spermatogenesis, testosterone production
  13. tubes that sperm move through
    vas deferens
  14. in females, the phase before ovulation is called the _____ phase
  15. during this phase, FSH is involved in the development of the _____, which is the egg and the surrounding cells. this _____ secretes _____.
    follicle, follicle, hormones
  16. mid-cycle, there is a surge of LH, resulting in _____ when the egg is released from the follicle. the second phase is called the _____ phase and the _____ _____ secretes the hormones _____ and _____.
    ovulation, luteal, corpus luteum, estrogen and progesterone.
  17. the lining of the uterus which is called the _____.
  18. menstruation involves sloughing off of the uterine lining. fertilization takes place in the _____ _____.
    fallopian tube
  19. if a female becomes pregnant, _____ is released when the blastocyst implants in the uterus.
    HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
  20. changes which take place at puberty such as breast development, acne, increased musculature etc. are _____ sex characteristics.
  21. _____ are individuals born with external genitalia that are either ambiguous or the reverse of the genetic sex.
  22. _____ _____ _____ is a genetic male born with female genitalia
    androgen insensitivity syndrome
  23. _____ _____ _____ also known as Adrenogenital syndrome is a genetic female with a malfunctioning adrenal gland, resulting in excess prenatal androgen.
    congenital adrenial hyperplasia
  24. in _____ _____ _____ _____ deficiency syndrome the individual lacks an enzyme needed to convert testosterone to DHT.
    5 alpha reductase deficiency
  25. the symptoms of schizophrenia can be classified as either being _____ (behavioral excesses, including hallucinations and delusions) or _____ (behavioral deficits, including lack of motivation, inability to feel pleasure).
    positive, negative
  26. physiological theories of schizophrenia have involved the neurochemistry of the brain and structural abnormalities. high doses of _____ increase dopamine activity and produce psychotic behaviors.
    amphetamines (cocaine)
  27. one of the drugs used in treating psychosis is _____ also known as chlorpromazine.
  28. thorazine works by blocking _____ and is more successful in treating positive symptoms.
    dopamine receptors
  29. one of the side effects of thorazine is _____ _____, involuntary movements due to increased sensitivity of dopamine receptors in movement areas of the brain.
    tardive dyskinesia.
  30. newer _____ neuroleptics such as clozaril and risperidone block dopamine less and also have an influence on the transmitters _____ and _____.
    atypical. serotonin and glutamate
  31. the glutamate theory states that _____ glutamate is involved in schizophrenia. this theory is supported by the fact that _____ inhibits glutamate activity and causes symptoms similar to schizophrenia and atypical neuroleptics work by increasing glutamate activity.
    decreased, PCP.
  32. _____ neuroleptics are better than older neuroleptics such as thorazine in treating negative symptoms.
    newer (atypical)
  33. the _____ theory states that schizophrenics have less activity in the frontal lobes
  34. one structural change in the brain of schizophrenics is enlarged _____.
  35. prenatal factors such as exposure to viruses and birth complications contribute to these and other structural changes. rapid changes also take place during _____, the time when symptoms of schizophrenia often develop.
  36. _____ disorder involves cycling between depression and mania.
  37. depression which is thought to be due to biological causes is called _____.
  38. depression which is a reaction to environmental stress is called _____ or _____.
    exogenous OR reactive
  39. most affective disorders are a combination of biological and psychological causes. according to the _____ theory of affective disorders, depression is associated with decreased activity of the transmitters _____ and _____.
    monoamine, serotonin and norepinephrine
  40. deactivation or degradation of transmitters and take place in two ways: _____ and _____
    reuptake and enzymes
  41. the enzyme breaking down acetylcholine is _____, the enzyme breaking down monoamines is _____ _____.
    acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase (MAO).
  42. some types of antidepressants are MAOI, which interfere with enzyme activity, _____, which block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine and _____ _____ _____ _____ such as Prozac which are selective to serotonin.
    tricyclics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  43. the _____ _____ problem refers to the problem of explaining why increase in levels of transmitters occurs immediately but alleviation of symptoms can take weeks.
    time lag
  44. a treatment used as the last resort for severe depression is _____, formerly referred to as shock therapy.
  45. a main drug used to treat bipolar disorder is _____
  46. phototherapy or light therapy would be used to treat _____.
    SAD (seasonal affective disorder)
  47. anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, panic and OCD. some anxiety disorders can be treated with _____ such as valium and librium.
    benzodiazepines (tranquilizers)
  48. benzodiazepines increase the activity of the inhibitor transmitter _____.
  49. OCD is related to a number of disorders and is treated using antidepressants that block _____ reuptake.
  50. one brain structure involved in both Tourette's and OCD is the _____ _____.
    basal ganglia
  51. in _____ there are cognitive deficits including memory problems.
  52. in alzheimer's the _____ pathways degenerate.
  53. other factors playing a role in alzheimers are genetics, amyloid protein and the presence of plaques and tangles.
  54. the mad hatter had _____ poisoning.
  55. boxers suffer from _____ _____ syndrome
    punch drunk
  56. list atleast 5 causes of dementia:
    drugs, bacteria, viruses, carbon minocide, neurotoxins: mercury, lead, strokes, tumor, head trauma. alzheimers. huntington's. parkinsons.
  57. alzheimers is just one of many causes of _____.

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2010-12-15 12:59:03

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