a fetus with XX chromosomes will normally develop female gonads or _____.
a fetus with XY chromosomes will normally develop male gonads or _____ which secrete the hormone _____.
a fetus with XY chromosomes will not develop male internal reproductive structures unless there are two substances present. these are _____ to develop the male structures and _____ to inhibit the development of the female system.
testosterone, MIH (mullerian inhibiting hormone)
the female system is the _____ system and the male system is the _____.
a derivative of testosterone, _____ masculinizes the external genitalia.
at puberty, the hypothalamus begins to secrete a releasing factor _____ _____ _____ which triggers the pituitary to secrete _____ and _____.
gonadotropin releasing-factor hormone,
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone),
and LH (lutenizing hormone)
hormones are gonadotropins and act on the _____ in the male and the _____ in the female.
holds sperm during maturation
produces semen (2 words)
produces semen (1 word)
spermatogenesis, testosterone production
tubes that sperm move through
in females, the phase before ovulation is called the _____ phase
during this phase, FSH is involved in the development of the _____, which is the egg and the surrounding cells. this _____ secretes _____.
follicle, follicle, hormones
mid-cycle, there is a surge of LH, resulting in _____ when the egg is released from the follicle. the second phase is called the _____ phase and the _____ _____ secretes the hormones _____ and _____.
ovulation, luteal, corpus luteum, estrogen and progesterone.
the lining of the uterus which is called the _____.
menstruation involves sloughing off of the uterine lining. fertilization takes place in the _____ _____.
if a female becomes pregnant, _____ is released when the blastocyst implants in the uterus.
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
changes which take place at puberty such as breast development, acne, increased musculature etc. are _____ sex characteristics.
_____ are individuals born with external genitalia that are either ambiguous or the reverse of the genetic sex.
_____ _____ _____ is a genetic male born with female genitalia
androgen insensitivity syndrome
_____ _____ _____ also known as Adrenogenital syndrome is a genetic female with a malfunctioning adrenal gland, resulting in excess prenatal androgen.
congenital adrenial hyperplasia
in _____ _____ _____ _____ deficiency syndrome the individual lacks an enzyme needed to convert testosterone to DHT.
5 alpha reductase deficiency
the symptoms of schizophrenia can be classified as either being _____ (behavioral excesses, including hallucinations and delusions) or _____ (behavioral deficits, including lack of motivation, inability to feel pleasure).
physiological theories of schizophrenia have involved the neurochemistry of the brain and structural abnormalities. high doses of _____ increase dopamine activity and produce psychotic behaviors.
one of the drugs used in treating psychosis is _____ also known as chlorpromazine.
thorazine works by blocking _____ and is more successful in treating positive symptoms.
one of the side effects of thorazine is _____ _____, involuntary movements due to increased sensitivity of dopamine receptors in movement areas of the brain.
newer _____ neuroleptics such as clozaril and risperidone block dopamine less and also have an influence on the transmitters _____ and _____.
atypical. serotonin and glutamate
the glutamate theory states that _____ glutamate is involved in schizophrenia. this theory is supported by the fact that _____ inhibits glutamate activity and causes symptoms similar to schizophrenia and atypical neuroleptics work by increasing glutamate activity.
_____ neuroleptics are better than older neuroleptics such as thorazine in treating negative symptoms.
the _____ theory states that schizophrenics have less activity in the frontal lobes
one structural change in the brain of schizophrenics is enlarged _____.
prenatal factors such as exposure to viruses and birth complications contribute to these and other structural changes. rapid changes also take place during _____, the time when symptoms of schizophrenia often develop.
_____ disorder involves cycling between depression and mania.
depression which is thought to be due to biological causes is called _____.
depression which is a reaction to environmental stress is called _____ or _____.
exogenous OR reactive
most affective disorders are a combination of biological and psychological causes. according to the _____ theory of affective disorders, depression is associated with decreased activity of the transmitters _____ and _____.
monoamine, serotonin and norepinephrine
deactivation or degradation of transmitters and take place in two ways: _____ and _____
reuptake and enzymes
the enzyme breaking down acetylcholine is _____, the enzyme breaking down monoamines is _____ _____.
acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase (MAO).
some types of antidepressants are MAOI, which interfere with enzyme activity, _____, which block reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine and _____ _____ _____ _____ such as Prozac which are selective to serotonin.