Gastrointestinal Dystfunction-Patho-Focused.txt

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Gastrointestinal Dystfunction-Patho-Focused.txt
2010-12-10 01:50:01

GI disorders
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  1. GI alterations of the vary young?
    low pressure LES, uncoordinated motility, slow peristalsis
  2. GI decreases a/w aging?
    decreased sense of taste, motility, blood flow to GI system, absorption, liver's ability to detoxify drugs, digestive enzymes
  3. Reverse esophageal peristalsis is a cause of ___
  4. What electrolytes are lost through diarrhea?
    bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, magnesium
  5. Ingesting non-absorbable substances causes what?
    sodium and water get sucked into intestines resulting in Osmotic Diarrhea
  6. What type of diarrhea is a/w s.aureus and clostridium defficile?
    Secretory diarrhea
  7. Excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes, may be a/w antibiotic therapy (C's of)
    secretory diarrhea
  8. dehydration, metabolic acidosis, abdominal pain, CNS depression (M's of)
  9. Guaiac test is used to identify what?
    Occult bleeding of the GI tract
  10. 2 Structural causes of dysphagia?
    diverticula & achalasia
  11. prodromal M's of intestinal obstruction?
    fatigue, fever, hyperalgia, vomiting, colicky pain
  12. cardinal M's of small intestine obstruction?
    colicky pain due to distention followed by vomiting
  13. bile stained vomit and dehydration (M's of)
    proximal small intestine obstruction
  14. constipation, emesis of fecal material, and high-pitched bowel sounds (M's of)
    distal small intestine obstruction
  15. constipation, liquid diarrhea, and absent bowel sounds (M's of)
    large intestine obstruction
  16. Risk factors of Gastroesophageal reflux?
    high intra-abdominal pressure, the American diet, smoking, lying supine
  17. heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, dysphagia 1hr after eating (M's of)
    Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
  18. often none, but may have heartburn, chest pain, and dysphagia (M's of)
    Hiatal hernia
  19. abdominal pain, epigastric tenderness, hematemesis, and usually heals in a few days (M's of)
    acute gastritis
  20. Type A Chronic Gastritis causes decreased what?
    acid secretion and vitamin B12 absorption due to loss of chief and parietal cells
  21. caused by H. pylori, and r/t reflux of bile and pancreatic enzymes (C's of)
    Type B (antral) Chronic Gastritis
  22. GI bleeding only; but may have anorexia, fullness, nausea/vomiting, and epigastric pain (M's of)
    chronic gastritis
  23. pain immediately after eating, anorexia, vomiting, weight loss (M's of)
    gastric ulcers
  24. having more parietal cells than normal is a/w what type of ulcer?
    duodenal ulcer
  25. pain 2-3 hrs after eating, when stomach is empty, and in the middle of the night (M's of)
    duodenal ulcers
  26. eating often and taking antacids helps with the pain of what kind of ulcer?
  27. why does getting your pyloric sphincter removed cause hypotension, weakness, pallor, sweating, dizziness, and increased pulse?
    rapid gastric emptying causes sudden shift of fluid into intestine
  28. what GI syndrome causes both hypo and hyperglycemia?
    Dumping Syndrome
  29. nausea, bilious vomiting, sustained epigastric pain after eating not relieved by antacids (M's of)
    alkaline reflux gastritis
  30. iron anemia is caused by?
    low acid secretion from duodenum
  31. vitamin B12 anemia is caused by?
    lack of intrinsic factor from parietal cells
  32. diarrhea (10-20/day), blood and mucus in stool, cramping, urge to defecate (M's of)
    ulcerative colitis
  33. ____ increases ones risk of colorectal cancer after 10 years
    ulcerative colitis
  34. inflammation develops in the crypts of Liegerkuhn in what disorder?
    ulcerative colitis
  35. skip lesions and cobblestone projections are C's of?
    crohn disease
  36. ____ affects the entire gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus
    crohn disease
  37. relapsing/remitting, chronic irritable bowel, diarrhea, protein lost, colonic bleeding (M's of)
    crohn disease
  38. what is the most common cause of emergency abdominal surgery?
  39. epigastric or periumbilical pain, RLQ pain, diarrhea, fever (M's of)
  40. abdominal pain, fever, bleeding, bowel obstruction (M's of)
  41. 2 causes of prehepatic jaundice?
    liver can't conjugate bilirubin, liver can't transport bilirubin through caniculi
  42. light colored stool, amber/dark urine (M's of)
  43. bilirubin over 2.5 =
  44. Portal hypertension can cause ___
    varices, splenomegaly, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy
  45. Liver failure leads to ___
    decreased clotting factor, decreased albumen, increased portal pressure, increased ammonia
  46. early signs include personality changes, irritability, memory loss, lethargy, asterixis (M's of)
    hepatic encephalopathy
  47. Late signs include confusion, seizure, and coma (M's of)
    hepatic encephalopathy
  48. acute versions of hepatitis are?
    A, B, C, D, E
  49. chronic version of hepatitis are?
    B & C
  50. HBV & HCV can also cause?
    liver failure and liver cancer
  51. in order to get hepatitis D, one must first get?
    Hepatitis B
  52. HAV & HEV transmission?
  53. HBV, HCV, & HDV transmission?
  54. what phase of viral hepatitis is manifested by just feeling sick?
    prodromal phase
  55. jaundice, dark urine, light stools, enlarged liver (M's of)
    icteric phase of viral hepatitis
  56. what disorder is characterized by a cobblestoned liver?
  57. enlarged liver and spleen, ascites, portal hypertension, esophageal varices (M's of)
    alcoholic liver disease (Leinnic's cirrhosis)
  58. what type of cirrhosis begins with the hepatocytes?
    alcoholic liver or Leinnec's
  59. what type of cirrhosis begins in the bile canaliculi and ducts?
  60. obstruction of common bile duct by gallstones, tumors, fibrotic strictures, or chronic pancreatitis (causes of)
    secondary biliary cirrhosis in adults
  61. What 2 things can cause Biliary cirrhosis in kids?
    biliary atresia or cystic fibrosis
  62. RF's cholelithiasis for adults?
    multiple pregnancies, obesity, oral contraceptives
  63. RF's cholelithiasis for children?
    cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease
  64. Being Native American puts one at risk for?
  65. M's usually follow meals, RUQ pain, right shoulder or back pain (M's of)
  66. excessive flatus, bloating, epigastric burning, vomiting, diaphoresis (M's of)
  67. decreased absorption of fat soluble vitamins, colicky pain, jaundice (M's of)
  68. severe RUQ and back pain, rebound tenderness and guarding, jaundice, leukocytosis (M's of)
    acute cholecystitis
  69. steady, boring pain in LUQ that radiates to the back; tachycardia and hypotension (M's of)
    acute pantreatitis
  70. hypocalcemia, fever, and possibly transient hyperglycemia (M's of)
    acute pancreatitis
  71. can cause diabetes mellitus, weight loss, and lead to pancreatic cancer (C's of)
    Chronic pancreatitis
  72. upper abdominal pain that worsens after eating, pancreatic cysts, calcification and strictures (M's of)
    chronic pancreatitis
  73. RF's for esophageal cancer?
    Barrett esophagitis, alcohol abuse, smoking, malnutrition
  74. RF's for gastric cancer?
    H. pylori infection, American diet, smoking, alcohol
  75. unexplained weight loss, upper abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, anemia (M's of ? cancer)
    gastric cancer
  76. RF's for colorectal cancer?
    American diet, genetics, ulcerative colitis, aging, colorectal polyps
  77. blood in stool, anemia, weakness, fatigue, bowel changes, weight loss (M's of ? cancer)
    colo-rectal cancer
  78. RF's for liver cancer?
    hepatitis B & C, cirrosis
  79. which GI cancer is most often metastatic?
  80. fullness, pressure, dull ache in RUQ, jaundice, abrupt loss of appetite (M's of ? cancer)
  81. RF's for pancreatic cancer?
    aging, petroleum products, high fat and protein with low fiber diet
  82. which GI cancer is associated with diabetes mellitus?
    pancreatic cancer
  83. diarrhea, flatulence, weight loss, fatigue, steatorrhea (M's of)
    celiac disease
  84. infants with celiac disease show what M's?
    diarrhea and failure to thrive
  85. low potassium =
    muscle weakness
  86. low magnesium =
  87. low calcium =
    muscle spasm and tetany
  88. low vitamin K =
    easy bruising
  89. low vitamin D =
    bone pain and fractures
  90. M's of necrotizing enterocolitis?
    M's begin within 2 weeks of birth; GI issues, sepsis, gangrene, unstable temperature, bradycardia
  91. cerebral palsy, mental retardation, movement disorders, and often death (M's of)
  92. BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes are a/w what?
    colon cancer in women
  93. cancer of the stomach, bile duct, gallbladder, and pancreas in both men and women is a/w what gene?
    BRCA2 gene