Card Set Information
GI alterations of the vary young?
low pressure LES, uncoordinated motility, slow peristalsis
GI decreases a/w aging?
decreased sense of taste, motility, blood flow to GI system, absorption, liver's ability to detoxify drugs, digestive enzymes
Reverse esophageal peristalsis is a cause of ___
What electrolytes are lost through diarrhea?
bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, magnesium
Ingesting non-absorbable substances causes what?
sodium and water get sucked into intestines resulting in Osmotic Diarrhea
What type of diarrhea is a/w s.aureus and clostridium defficile?
Excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes, may be a/w antibiotic therapy (C's of)
dehydration, metabolic acidosis, abdominal pain, CNS depression (M's of)
Guaiac test is used to identify what?
Occult bleeding of the GI tract
2 Structural causes of dysphagia?
diverticula & achalasia
prodromal M's of intestinal obstruction?
fatigue, fever, hyperalgia, vomiting, colicky pain
cardinal M's of small intestine obstruction?
colicky pain due to distention followed by vomiting
bile stained vomit and dehydration (M's of)
proximal small intestine obstruction
constipation, emesis of fecal material, and high-pitched bowel sounds (M's of)
distal small intestine obstruction
constipation, liquid diarrhea, and absent bowel sounds (M's of)
large intestine obstruction
Risk factors of Gastroesophageal reflux?
high intra-abdominal pressure, the American diet, smoking, lying supine
heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, dysphagia 1hr after eating (M's of)
Gastroesophageal reflux (GERD)
often none, but may have heartburn, chest pain, and dysphagia (M's of)
abdominal pain, epigastric tenderness, hematemesis, and usually heals in a few days (M's of)
Type A Chronic Gastritis causes decreased what?
acid secretion and vitamin B12 absorption due to loss of chief and parietal cells
caused by H. pylori, and r/t reflux of bile and pancreatic enzymes (C's of)
Type B (antral) Chronic Gastritis
GI bleeding only; but may have anorexia, fullness, nausea/vomiting, and epigastric pain (M's of)
pain immediately after eating, anorexia, vomiting, weight loss (M's of)
having more parietal cells than normal is a/w what type of ulcer?
pain 2-3 hrs after eating, when stomach is empty, and in the middle of the night (M's of)
eating often and taking antacids helps with the pain of what kind of ulcer?
why does getting your pyloric sphincter removed cause hypotension, weakness, pallor, sweating, dizziness, and increased pulse?
rapid gastric emptying causes sudden shift of fluid into intestine
what GI syndrome causes both hypo and hyperglycemia?
nausea, bilious vomiting, sustained epigastric pain after eating not relieved by antacids (M's of)
alkaline reflux gastritis
iron anemia is caused by?
low acid secretion from duodenum
vitamin B12 anemia is caused by?
lack of intrinsic factor from parietal cells
diarrhea (10-20/day), blood and mucus in stool, cramping, urge to defecate (M's of)
____ increases ones risk of colorectal cancer after 10 years
inflammation develops in the crypts of Liegerkuhn in what disorder?
skip lesions and cobblestone projections are C's of?
____ affects the entire gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus
relapsing/remitting, chronic irritable bowel, diarrhea, protein lost, colonic bleeding (M's of)
what is the most common cause of emergency abdominal surgery?
epigastric or periumbilical pain, RLQ pain, diarrhea, fever (M's of)
abdominal pain, fever, bleeding, bowel obstruction (M's of)
2 causes of prehepatic jaundice?
liver can't conjugate bilirubin, liver can't transport bilirubin through caniculi
light colored stool, amber/dark urine (M's of)
bilirubin over 2.5 =
Portal hypertension can cause ___
varices, splenomegaly, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy
Liver failure leads to ___
decreased clotting factor, decreased albumen, increased portal pressure, increased ammonia
early signs include personality changes, irritability, memory loss, lethargy, asterixis (M's of)
Late signs include confusion, seizure, and coma (M's of)
acute versions of hepatitis are?
A, B, C, D, E
chronic version of hepatitis are?
B & C
HBV & HCV can also cause?
liver failure and liver cancer
in order to get hepatitis D, one must first get?
HAV & HEV transmission?
HBV, HCV, & HDV transmission?
what phase of viral hepatitis is manifested by just feeling sick?
jaundice, dark urine, light stools, enlarged liver (M's of)
icteric phase of viral hepatitis
what disorder is characterized by a cobblestoned liver?
enlarged liver and spleen, ascites, portal hypertension, esophageal varices (M's of)
alcoholic liver disease (Leinnic's cirrhosis)
what type of cirrhosis begins with the hepatocytes?
alcoholic liver or Leinnec's
what type of cirrhosis begins in the bile canaliculi and ducts?
obstruction of common bile duct by gallstones, tumors, fibrotic strictures, or chronic pancreatitis (causes of)
secondary biliary cirrhosis in adults
What 2 things can cause Biliary cirrhosis in kids?
biliary atresia or cystic fibrosis
RF's cholelithiasis for adults?
multiple pregnancies, obesity, oral contraceptives
RF's cholelithiasis for children?
cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease
Being Native American puts one at risk for?
M's usually follow meals, RUQ pain, right shoulder or back pain (M's of)
excessive flatus, bloating, epigastric burning, vomiting, diaphoresis (M's of)
decreased absorption of fat soluble vitamins, colicky pain, jaundice (M's of)
severe RUQ and back pain, rebound tenderness and guarding, jaundice, leukocytosis (M's of)
steady, boring pain in LUQ that radiates to the back; tachycardia and hypotension (M's of)
hypocalcemia, fever, and possibly transient hyperglycemia (M's of)
can cause diabetes mellitus, weight loss, and lead to pancreatic cancer (C's of)
upper abdominal pain that worsens after eating, pancreatic cysts, calcification and strictures (M's of)
RF's for esophageal cancer?
Barrett esophagitis, alcohol abuse, smoking, malnutrition
RF's for gastric cancer?
H. pylori infection, American diet, smoking, alcohol
unexplained weight loss, upper abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, anemia (M's of ? cancer)
RF's for colorectal cancer?
American diet, genetics, ulcerative colitis, aging, colorectal polyps
blood in stool, anemia, weakness, fatigue, bowel changes, weight loss (M's of ? cancer)
RF's for liver cancer?
hepatitis B & C, cirrosis
which GI cancer is most often metastatic?
fullness, pressure, dull ache in RUQ, jaundice, abrupt loss of appetite (M's of ? cancer)
RF's for pancreatic cancer?
aging, petroleum products, high fat and protein with low fiber diet
which GI cancer is associated with diabetes mellitus?
diarrhea, flatulence, weight loss, fatigue, steatorrhea (M's of)
infants with celiac disease show what M's?
diarrhea and failure to thrive
low potassium =
low magnesium =
low calcium =
muscle spasm and tetany
low vitamin K =
low vitamin D =
bone pain and fractures
M's of necrotizing enterocolitis?
M's begin within 2 weeks of birth; GI issues, sepsis, gangrene, unstable temperature, bradycardia
cerebral palsy, mental retardation, movement disorders, and often death (M's of)
BRCA1 & BRCA2 genes are a/w what?
colon cancer in women
cancer of the stomach, bile duct, gallbladder, and pancreas in both men and women is a/w what gene?