Gastrointestinal Dysfunction-Patho-Definitions.txt

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Gastrointestinal Dysfunction-Patho-Definitions.txt
2010-12-10 01:50:54

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  1. Hematemesis (def)
    blood in vomitus (emesis) making is brown and lumpy
  2. hematochezia (def)
    bright red or burgundy blood in stool usually from lower GI bleed
  3. Melena (def)
    dark and tarry blood in stool usually from upper GI bleed
  4. Occult blood or bleeding (def)
    non-visible GI bleeding
  5. diverticula (def)
    an outpouching of the esophagus
  6. achalasia (def)
    a narrow spot where the esophagus goes through the diaphragm
  7. volvulus (def)
    twisted stomach of intestine
  8. intussusception (def)
    inversion of one part of the gut into another
  9. adhesions (def)
    bands of connective tissue in the wrong spot
  10. Barrett Esophagus (def)
    disorder where damage causes squamous cells to be replaced by columnar cells, is also a RF for esophageal cancer
  11. Hiatal hernia (def)
    defect in diaphragm that allows a part of the stomach to herniate up through
  12. Acute gastritis (def)
    gastric mucosal barrier is eroded by prostaglandin inhibitors (asprin, NSAIDs), alcohol, histamines, and metabolic disorders (uremia)
  13. severe mucosal degeneration of stomach by H. pylori causing loss of chief and parietal cells (def of)
    Type A (fundal) Chronic Gastritis
  14. "Fundal" Chronic Gastritis (def)
    most severe, mucosa degenerated by H. pylori, loss of chief and parietal cells
  15. Peptic ulcer disease (def)
    disruption of protective mucosal lining in lower esophagus, stomach, or duodenum
  16. gastric ulcers (def)
    ulcers in astral region, near acid-secreting mucosa of body of stomach
  17. altered gastric emptying resulting in a suden deposit in small intestine (def of)
    dumping syndrome
  18. ulcerative colitis (def)
    inflammation of rectum and colon
  19. crohn disease (def)
    inflammation that can affect the entire small and large intestine and involves all layers of the wall
  20. pseudomembranous enterocolitis (def)
    acute inflammation and necrosis of small and large intestine caused by C. difficult
  21. diverticula/diverticulum (def)
    saccular outpouching of mucosa through the circular muscle of the intestinal wall
  22. diverticulosis (def)
    non-inflamed diverticula
  23. diverticulitis (def)
    inflammation of the diverticula
  24. posthepatic jaundice (def)
    yellow because of a mechanical obstruction of bile ducts
  25. melena (def)
    dark, sticky feces containing partially digested blood; characteristic of gastroesophageal varices
  26. asterixis (def)
    also called "liver flap"; a tremor of the upper limbs and hands
  27. hepatorenal syndrome (def)
    acute renal failure associated with liver function due to ischemia or low fluid volume
  28. inflammation of liver parenchyma due to viral infection (def of)
    viral hepatitis
  29. prodromal phase of hepatitis (def)
    begins 2 weeks after exposure and ends when jaundice appears
  30. icteric phase (def)
    1-2 weeks after prodromal and lasts 2-6 weeks
  31. cirrhosis (def)
    irreversible inflammation of liver than disrupts structure and function
  32. Leannec's cirrhosis (def)
    alcoholic liver disease
  33. primary biliary cirrhosis (def)
    autoimmune destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts (M's are progressive, nonspecific, and end with encephalopathy)
  34. cholelithiasis (def)
    gallstones in the gallbladder
  35. cholecystitis (def)
    inflammation of the gallbladder
  36. celiac disease (def)
    intolerance to gluten
  37. necrotizing enterocalitis (def)
    ischemic, inflammation of bowel causing necrosis of small and large intestine in premature infants
  38. physiologic jaundice of the newborn (def)
    transient, benign icterus during first week of life in an otherwise health baby causing mild unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
  39. Kernicterus (def)
    brain injury resulting from hyperbilirubinemia in infants