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Who was Otto von Bismarck?
• Prime Minister of Prussia (1862-1890)
• Oversaw unification of Germany
• Chancellor of North German Confederation
• Designed "Realpolitik"
• Became known as the "Iron Chancellor"
Who was Giuseppe Garibaldi?
• Italian military/political figure
• Joined the ill-fated Carbonari insurrection
• Led the Italian Legion in the Uruguayan Civil War
• Returned to command the conflicts of Risorgimento
Who was Napoleon III?
• Emperor of Second French Empire AND President of French Second Republic
• Elected in 1848 - coup de tat in 1851
- • Participated in many military engagements:
- The Crimean War
- The Second Opium War
- Taiping Rebellion
• Renovated and industrialized Paris
• In turn installed the French Third Republic
What is the Alsace-Lorraine ?
Territory created by the German Empire after the annexation of most of these lands in the Franco-Prussian War
Became a Reichsland following this war - many nations have annexed it in the world wars to follow...
Who was Commodore Matthew Perry ?
• Commodore in the US Navy pre-Civil War
• Urged the opening of Japan
and Key West
- • Signed Convention of Kanagawa
- • Opened ports to US merchant ships in Japan
• Grew out of rivaling interests between Russian Empire and Japanese Empire
- • Interests in porting Manchuria and Korea
- • Lasted almost two years, Feb. 1904 - Sept. 1905
• Grievances with opium traders and spheres of influence in china cause this outbreak
• 1898 - 1901
• proto-nationalist movement between Christians and western imperialism
Congo Free State
• Government controlled by Leopold II of Belgium
• Known for its brutality toward natives and plundering of natural resources
• Was annexed by Belgium and has since become the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Berlin Conference of 1885
• the formalization of the Scramble for Africa
• enacted by Otto von Bismarck
• put Europe on the map as the New Imperialists, and eliminating any and all autonomy present in Africa
• conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States
• revolts against Spanish rule and atrocities roused up the bulk of American people
- • ultimatum sent to Madrid in mass political (though hesitant) response to the mysterious sinking of the Maine
- • Spain declares war on US in spite of McKinley's wish to avoid the war
Natives Land Act of 1913
• Crucial component to Apartheid
• Set regulations on land ownership by "natives"
• Last German Emperor and King of Prussia
• Ambitions for the German Empire that may or may not have directly caused WWI
• Was involved in the Sarajevo Crisis - promised to help crush the Black Hand
• Military alliance from 1882-1914 between Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary
• Would go to war against the Triple Entente in the Great War
Germany's plan if it were to face a two-front war - in France and in Russia.
Treaty of Brest-Lovsk
Peace treaty between Russia and the Central powers that basically declared Russia's withdrawal from WWI
Gave relief to the Bolsheviks - they needed help
the meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Rooseveltand Winston Churchill between November 28 and December 1, 1943, most of which was held at the Soviet Embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first World War II conference amongst the Big Three (the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom) in which Stalin was present
The central aim of the Tehran conference was to plan the final strategy for the war against Nazi Germany and its allies, and the chief discussion was centered on the opening of a second front in Western Europe.
Mutual Defense treaty issued in the Bloc
Between 8 communist states, signed by Russia, released in May of 1955
a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II. It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Slovak Alexander Dubček
the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Helsinki, Finland during July and August of 1975. Thirty-five states, including theUSA, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West.
the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, serving from 1985 until 1991, and the last head of state of the USSR, serving from 1988 until its collapse in 1991.
He was the only Soviet leader to have been born after the October Revolution of 1917. In 1989, he became the first and only Soviet leader to visit China since the Sino-Soviet split in the 1960s
Balfour Declaration of 1917
Proclamation by british government to give the Jews a place to live within the walls of Palestine, i.e. Israel