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Medication ending with ALOL
"Beta laughs alot"
Mechanism of action: Selective beta 1-adrenergic blockers but occasional blocks beta 2.
- Block sympathetic nervous systems to heart and lungs
- *You got one heart (beta 1) and two lungs (beta 2)
- **B1 hr^, Bp^
- **B2 bronchodialate
- Commonside effects: bradycardia, hypotension, and congestive heart
- failure(if HR too low), and brochospasm.
- Assessment prior to giving medication
- *BP must be >100 or per MD
- *HR must be >60 or per MD
Assess breath sound for wheezing
ending with pril
"Ace tennis is played in April"
- Mechanism of action: angiotension
- converting enzyme inhibitors.
- *Normal: liver produces angiotensin I (mild vasoconstrictor) with the present of renin angiotensin it converts to angiotensin II (potent vasoconstrictor) to
- increase blood pressure. This medication blocks the above effects.
- **=vasodilate + lowers water
- **=Drop in BP
S/E: chronic cough, angioedema,(do not know why) and hypotension.
- Not drug of choice for black patient (not
- Assessment: monitor BP and assess for s/s of chronic cough or angioedema (can
- happen at any time), hypotension
- A=angioedema (swelling throat/tongue)
Angiotensin II blockers (ARB's)
ending with “SARTAN”
MOA: blocks angiotensin II, which is a vaso-constrictor.
- Side effects: hypotension, dizziness, and
very effective for black people.
"black angio is blocked from a spartan lifestyle"
<side effecst than ACE inhibitors, no cough
Calcium channel blockers
alcium channel blockers are v
ice grapfruit d
- Medications ending in pine and the following:
MOA: blocks calcium from going into cardiac smooth muscle causing slowed hr and vaso-dilation.
- Calcium aide with muscle contraction.
- *Less calcium =less contraction
- *For every contraction = heart beat
Side Effects: Bradycardia, hypotension, and heart failure
- avoid when taking
- *Grapefruit (enhanced drug absorption)
- reverse the affects of Calcium channel blockers OD?
- *Calcium Chloride/Calcium gluconate
Cholesterol lowering drugs
ending with statin
MOA: inhibiting fat absorption and inhibit cholesterol production in the liver.
if not enough, Break down muscle which causes rhabomylosis.
- If your body does not absorbed
- fat from food consumed, would see fatty stool or floaters.
- Side effects: Flatulence, abdominal
- discomfort, stetorrhea, muscle weakness (rhabdomyolosis).
- **complications from Rhabdomyolosis?
- ***ARF due to excess waste and caused nephrons irritation and nephrons death.
- ****cell break down debris clog nephrons = renal failure w. muscle weakness & aching
- ****treatments =Fluid and lasix
Cholesterol converted at night. Best time to give.
No grapefruit w. drug.
- Antibiotics ending in myocin
- *Gentamyocin, vacomyocin, or amikacin
aminos are the fungus amongst us nephrotoxic myocins
MOA: inhibit aminoglycoside (cell membrane) and inhibit DNA of the organism.
Side effect: secondary infections, nephrotoxic, and ototoxic
Dose is weight based to avoid side affects.
Prior: assess BUN/CR
Give over 90m
- "fungus amongst us"
- *yeast infection/diarria/oral candidias/clustridrium difficule.
- Any medication ending in Vir is
- an anti-viral.
MOA- inhibit cell wall synthesis and caused cell death.
Side effects: secondary infection, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- Why these type of side effects and what can
- you do to prevent the severity.
Treatment for angina
Treatments in order:
O-oxygen...do not need order
- *It works by preventing platelet aggregation.
- *Common S/E: bleeding (GI etc),
- bruising, and tinnitus
- N-nitroglycerin- nitrate
- *Acts by systemic vasodilatation
- and improve coronary perfusion
- *Use to decrease workload
- (decrease preload and after load)
- *SE: hypotension, headache (why?),
- and dizziness.
- *NG if BP<100
- Morphine: opiate agonist
- *Acts by blocking opiate receptors
- in the brain to alter pain perception and it also has vasodilatation property.
- *S/E- hypotension, (CNS depressant) lethargy, respiratory depression, and constipation
- Beta-blocker-beta adrenergic
- *Use to decrease workload by
- decreasing the BP and heart rate.
- *This medication also improve
- survival of patient with angina
- ACE-inhibitors will be added
- later to prevent cardiac tissue re-engineering (scar formation and prevent CHF)
- Medication ending in nitrate
- Example:isosorbide dinitrate
Classification: systemic vasodilator
- MOA- dilate coronary artery and blood
Decreases preload and afterload
Side effects: headache (why), hypotension, dizziness, syncope, reflex tachicardia
Application: Sublingal/paste (nitro paper, date/time/need gloves)
- Lovenox: low molecular heparin.
- *MOA: inhibits the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and fibrinogen to fibrin.
- *S/E: bleeding & bruising
- *monitor ptt (10-13s) or aptt (25-39s)
- *2 to 3x/day
- *more stable.
- *MOA: inhibits the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and fibrinogen to fibrin
- *Diagnostic test: PTT (partial prothrombin time)
- *Antidote: protamine sulfate (hi allergy potential) or hold heparin for 6 hours (half life of heparin)
- S/E: HIT (heprin induced throbocytopenia)
- if subQ: no blood monitoring due to 1/2 lift, stomach 2" away from bb.
- Coumadin/warfarin :
- *MOA: inhibit vitamin K in the
- clotting cascade.
- *S/E: bleeding. brain bleed common
- *Diagnostic test: Protime (PT) and INR
- *Antidote: Vitamin K (24 hr to work) and/or FFP
- Any medication ending with (ONE)
- *Example predisone or methylpredisolone
Cortico is the one sex sugar salt steroid
- MOA-cortico-steroid. It acts by inhibiting immune response and
- also anti-inflammatory. Inhibits neutrophil prduction.
S/E- cushing’s syndrome (fluid retention, wt. gain, moon face, and striae). . Facial hair
- sex: androgen testostorone (aggresiveness, facial hair)
- sugar: cortisol (diabetes, fat deposit/buffulo hump)
- salt:Aldosterone (edema,hypertension, HF)
Insulin-aide in the transport of glucose into the cell.
- Why are there so many types of insulin?
- *Peak and half life is different
- Goals: maintain stable blood
- glucose and avoid peaks and valleys.
MOA: insulin binds to glucose and potassium (K) to form a perfect key in order to transport glucose into the cell.
- What type of side of effect would you most likely observe?
- *Hypoglycemic (stimulate
- SNS-tachycardia, irritability, confusion, agitation, and diaphoresis)
- *Hypokalemia (arrhythmias)
- What would you assess prior to giving insulin?
- *Blood glucose and mental status
- *If on large amount of insulin-
- potassium level.