Pathology 3

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brannow
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Pathology 3
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2010-12-11 12:39:59
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IPAP Pathology #3
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  1. Non-neoplastic epithelial disorders

    Lichen Sclerosus
    Thinning of the epidermis with superficial hyperkeratosis
  2. Lichen simplex chronicus
    Epithelial thickiningwith signigicant hyperkeratosis
  3. Condylomata lata
    • Thin, flat, moist anogenital warts associated with syphilis
    • Not pre cancerous
  4. Condyloma acuminata
    • Papillary and elevated anogenital warts
    • Not pre cancerous
  5. Carcinoma of the vulva (VIN II or III)
    • 3% of all genital tract cnacers in women
    • 90% are squamous cell carcinoma's
    • HPV 16 is present in 75-90% of cases
  6. Vaginitis
    • pt c/o leukorrhea
    • Common offenders: Candida albicans (most common), Trichomonas vaginalis (2d most common), Gardnerella vaginitis (bacterial)
    • Stinks, fishy amine odor, CLUE CELLS under KOH
  7. Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma
    • Rare malignancy (usually >60)
    • Mother's took DES during pregnancy to reduce risk of miscarriage
  8. Sarcoma Botryoides
    • Rare variant of rhabdomyosarcoma
    • Children <5
    • Multiple polypoid masses resembling "bunch of grapes" often protruding from the vagina
  9. Cervicitis
    • Associated with mucopurulent or purulent vaginal discharge (leukorrhea)
    • Not pre cancerous
    • Most Important: Chlamydia trachomatis
  10. Cervical carcinoma
    • Major cause of cancer related deaths world wide
    • PAP smear dramatically lowered incidence
  11. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and Squamous Intraepithelial lesion (SIL)
    • Pre cancerous lesions graded
    • CIN I: Mild dysplasia_ BG: Low grade SIL
    • CIN II: Moderate dysplasia_BG: High grade SIL
    • CIN III: Severe dysplasia_BG: High grade SIL
    • CIS: Carcinoma in Situ_BG: High grade SIL
    • Classifided as Low/High grade_BG: High grade SIL
  12. HPV types for high risk cancer
    High risk: 16, 18

    Low Risk: 6, 11
  13. Adenomyosis
    • Growth of the basal layer of the endometruim down into the myometruim.
    • Uterine wall becomes thickened
  14. Mennorrhea
    Excessive bleeding at the time of the menstrual period
  15. Menorrhalgia
    Painful mentruation or pelvic pain accompanying menstruation, sometimes a symptom of endometriosis
  16. Primary dysmenorrhea
    pain present just prior toor at the onset of menstruation
  17. Metrorrhagia
    Irregular bleeding between the periods
  18. Endometrial Polyps
    • Occur at any age, generally at the time of menopause
    • Significance lies inteh production of abnormal uterine bleeding and rare risk of developing into cancer
  19. Endometrial Carcinoma
    • MOST FREQUENT CANCER of the female genital tract
    • Risks: Obesity, Diabetes, HTN
    • Frequently arises from endometrial hyperplasia
  20. Leiomyoma
    • Referred to as "fibroids"
    • Most common benign tumors in females
    • Asymptomatic
  21. Leiomyosarcoma
    • Arise from myometrium
    • Usually a solitary lesion
  22. Endometriosis
    • More important and adenomyosis
    • Ofen causes infertility, dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain
  23. Endometritis
    Acute: usually limited to bacterial infections arising after delivery or miscarriage (retained products of conception)

    Chronic: associated with chronic gonorrheal pelvic disease, TB, IUD's
  24. Salpingitis
    Inflammation of the fallopian tubes-nearly always bacterial

    • Chlamydia, Mycoplasma hominis
    • Post Partum: Staph, Strep
    • Infections often lead to blockage or scarring of the tubes
  25. Follicle and Luteal Cysts
    Most common cause of enlarged ovary
  26. Polycyctic Ovaries
    • Typcially 2x normal size
    • Excessive LH, Low FSH
    • Accompanies oligomenorrhea, hirsutism
  27. Ectopic pregnancy
    • Implantation of a fertilized egg outside the endometruim
    • 95% occur in the fallopian tubes
    • Pt presents with severe lower quadrant pain
  28. Complete abortion
    Fetus and placenta are completely expulsed and woman resumes normal menses
  29. Incomplete abortion
    Cervical dilation and expulsion of some fetal parts with soem being retained.
  30. Missed abortion
    Death of a fetus which remains in utero
  31. Threated abortion
    Cervical bleeding but the cervix does not dilate and pregnancy may continue uneventfully.
  32. Toxemia of Pregnancy
    • Occurs as a result of an abmornally functioning placenta or abnormal materno-placental interaction
    • Pre-eclampsic if no seizures
    • Eclampsic if seizures occur
  33. Amastia
    • Congenital absence of the breast
    • No breast tissue, nipple, or areola
  34. Polymastia
    Development of more than 2 breasts
  35. Accessory breast
    • Breast tissue without nipples
    • Occasionally found in the axilla
  36. Supernumerary Breasts
    Additional breast along the milk line
  37. Polythelia
    Supernumerary nipples without glands
  38. Mastitis
    • Acute: Most common inflammatory disease of the breast
    • Usually occurs during lactation - Staph/Strep from babies mouth
    • Chronic: Rare, biopsy required to r/o cancer
  39. Fibroadenoma
    • Most common benign tumor of the female breast
    • Increased estrogen activity, usually in younger women
  40. Phyllodes Tumor
    • Usually benign, may become malignant
    • Much less common than fibroadenoma
  41. Intraductal papilloma
    • Neoplastic papillary growth within a duct, usually latiferous ducts or sinuses
    • Serous/bloody discharge
    • Rarely nipple retraction
  42. Breast carcinoma
    • Second only to lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women'
    • Typically the left breast, Upper/Outer quadrant
    • Usually metastisize to axillary lymph nodes
    • BRCA1/2 are gene mutations associated with an increase risk of developing breast cancer
  43. Gynecomastia
    • Enlargement of the male breast
    • Excess estrogen
    • Usually caused by Cirrhosis-it's inability to metabolize the estrogen
  44. High risk factor for Breast carcinoma
    Female, >30, white (esp. Jewish), nulliparity, late age of 1st pregnancy
  45. Anterior Pituitary
    • Adenohypophysis
    • Secrete: GH, LH, FSH, ACTH, TSH, Prolactin
    • Trophic hormones: stimulate other endocrine glands
  46. Posterior Pituitary
    • Neurohypophysis
    • Secretes: Oxytocin, ADH
    • No trophic fxn
  47. Lactotrophic adenomas
    • Prolactinomas
    • Hyperprolatinemia, inihibits LH
    • pt c/o: amenorrhea, galactorrhea (spontaneous milk secretion unrelated to pregnancy), infertility
    • Men: decrease libido, impotence
  48. Somatotrophic adenomas
    • Gigantism: Oversecretion of hGH in children.
    • Acromegaly: Oversecretion of hGH in adults
    • Causes hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia
  49. Corticotropic adenoma
    Produce ACTH that stimulates the adrenal gland resulting in Cushing's Disease
  50. Gonadotropic adenoma
    • Produce LH/FSH
    • Generally middle aged men
    • Causes hypogonadism
  51. Diabetes Insipidus
    • Insufficient ADH secretion or Kidney tubule receptor problem
    • The inablity of the kidney to reabsorb water and results in dilute urine
    • Polyuria, polydipsia, + water deprivation test
  52. Graves Disease
    • Hyperthyroidism, autoimmune response to TSH receptors on the gland
    • Tachycardia, exophlamous, thyrotoxicosis
    • Greatly reduced TSH, Increaded T4
  53. Hypothyroidism
    • Defective synthesis of thyroid hormones, poor fxning of the parenchyma due to finflammation or surgical resection, cancer, inadequate secretion of thyrotropin
    • Sensitivity to cold, myxedema, bradycardia, decreased SV, CO, cool pale extremities
  54. Hashimoto's thyroiditis
    • Most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US
    • Autoimmune, females 6:1
  55. Papillary carcinoma (thyroid)
    • Most common cancer of the thyroid
    • Radiation exposure or genetic cause most common
    • Not aggressive, could metastisize to lungs and obstruct trachea
  56. Parathyroid glands
    • 4 glands
    • 4th branchial arch
    • 40 mg in weight
    • 4 mm in diameter
  57. Hyperparathyroidism
    • Usually due to parathyroid adenoma
    • Hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia
    • Increased risk of kidney stones
  58. Hypoparathyroidism
    • Accidental removal is most common cause during thyroidectomy
    • hypocalcemia, increased muscle excitability
  59. Hypercortisolism
    • Cushing's Syndrome
    • caused by administration of exogenous glucocorticoids
    • Primary hypothalmic/pituitary diseases assoc. with hypersecretion of ACTH, primary adrenocortical hyperplasia/neoplasia, secretion of ACTH by non endocrine glands
    • Early: Wt gain, HTN
    • Later: Moon facies, buffalo hump, purple striae
  60. Addison's Disease
    • Chronic Adrenocortical insufficiency, progressive destruction of the adrenal cortex.
    • GI disturbances common, hyperpigmentation of the skin, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia hypotension
  61. Pheochomocytoma
    Neoplasms composed of chromaffin cells, secreting excessive amounts of Epi/NorEpi
  62. Neuroblasoma
    • Most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood.
    • Occurs in first 5 years of life
  63. Macule
    • flat lesion measuring less than 2 cm
    • not raised or depressed, primarily just a color change
    • Freckle
  64. Patch
    Similar to a macule but larger than 2 cm
  65. Papule
    • Slightly elevated, small induration of the skin with a diameter of less than 1 cm
    • Hallmark of eczema
  66. Nodule
    Similar to a papule but larger 1-5 cm
  67. Tumor
    Nodule with a diameter exceeding 5 cm
  68. Vesicle
    • Fluid filled elevation of the epidermis measuring less than 1 cm.
    • Herpes
  69. Bulla
    • Vesicles measure more than 1 cm in diameter
    • Severe burns with large blisters
  70. Pustule
    • Vesicle filled with pus
    • Impetigo, bacterial infection of the skin usuall in children
  71. Fissure
    Sharp edged defet in the dermis that extends into the deeper layers of teh skin
  72. Ulcer
    • Defect or erosion of the epidermis
    • Syphilitic chancre
  73. Crust
    • A skin defect that iscovered with coagulated plasma or blood
    • Scab
  74. Scales
    • Keratin layers that cover the skin in flakes or sheets that can be easily scraped away
    • Dandruff
  75. Excoriation
    Superficial skin defect caused by scratching
  76. Ichthyosis congenita
    • Autosomal Dominant
    • Child born with large thick scale resembling fish skin
  77. Epidermolysis bullosa
    • term used to denote several skin disorders
    • Formation of large bulla upon rubbing of the skin or minor trauma
  78. Nevus Flammeus
    • Port Wine Mark
    • Aggregate of small blood vessels usually on the face
  79. Nevus
    • The most common congenital skin anomaly
    • Normal skin elemens arranged irregularly
  80. Contusion
    • Bleeding intothe soft tussues due to a disruption of the blood vessels
    • Bruise
  81. Abrasion
    • A superficial tearing away fo the epidermal cells
    • Road rash
  82. Laceration
    A jagged tear often seen with streching of the skin and or underlying tissue
  83. Incised wound/Incision
    • A clean cut by a sharp object
    • Scalpel
  84. Puncture wound
    Deep tubular wound produced by a sharrp thin object

    • Penetrating: when puncture pierces tissues
    • Perforating: when puncture transversesteh tissue to make an exit
  85. Burns
    • First: Superficial involvement (sun burn)-mildest
    • Second: Partial thickness-vesicle/bulla formation
    • Thirtd: Full thickness-charring of the skin
  86. Immersion foot
    • Tussue injury resulting from prolonged exposure to non freezing cold and moisture
    • Trench foot
    • Skin necrosis with blisters/ulcers
  87. Frostbite
    Injury caused by subfreezing temperatures
  88. Primary baterial infections
    Occur on apparently normal skin
  89. Secondary bacterial infections
    • Complicate pre existing skin diseases, wounds and ulcers
    • Significant concerns with nosocomial infections
  90. Systemic bacterial infections
    Skin involvment is only one of the manifestations of a blood borne infection
  91. Impetigo
    • Supericial infection involving Strep/Staph
    • honey colred scabs
    • Often on the face of children
    • Highly contagious
  92. Folliculitis
    • Infection is limited to teh hair follicles
    • Most often caused by Staph
  93. Furuncle
    • Involving the hair shaft and teh perifollicular tissue
    • Referred to as Boil
  94. Carbuncle
    • The original furuncle now involves multiple hair shafts and become much larger
    • Head or neck
    • Males
  95. Fungal infections
    • Fungal pathogen called dermophytes
    • Tend to live in dead tissue
    • Tinea pedis, capitis, manum, unguium, corporis
    • (Foot, scalp, hand, nail, body)
  96. Eczema
    • Used to denote numerous inflammatory skin diseases (dermatitis)
    • Non specific lesions, pruritic
    • Exogenous eczema-enviromental
    • Endogenous eczema-immune basis
  97. Seborrheic Dermatitis
    • Pt c/o erythema, scaling, itching of skin
    • Especially nasolabial folds, eyebrows, upper chest
  98. Psoriasis
    • slightly elevated papules and patches
    • Covered in silvery scale, covers most extensor surfaces (elbows and knees)
    • Usually not pruritic
    • Excasserbated by stress or trauma
  99. Tumors of Epithelial cells
    These originate from surface epidermis, hair shafts, subaceous glans and various eccrine and aporcrine sweat glands
  100. Seborrheic Keratosis
    • Most common benign epidermal tumor
    • bleed easily
    • "Stuck on" appearance
  101. Basal cell carcinoma
    • Most common malignant skin tumor of epithelial origin
    • Doesn't usually metastisize
  102. Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Occurs most often in sun exposed area
    • Small flat plaque, persistant ulcer or slightly elevated
  103. Actinic Keratosis
    • May preceede SCC in the sun exposed areas
    • Considered pre cancerous
  104. Ephelis
    • A macule or patch of skin in which the melanocytes show hyperactivity to UV light
    • Freckle
  105. Lentigo
    Sharply demarcated macule occupided by increase number of melanocytes unresponsive to UV
  106. Nevus
    Developmental skin abnormality consisting of an overabundance of melanocytes
  107. Malignant melanoma
    • Cancerous tumor originating fromthe melanocytes
    • Signs: persistant non healing ulcer containing friable bleeding tissue, ulcer of irregular shape
    • A-asymetry of the lesions B-Borders (irregular) C-Color (marked variations) D-Diameter of lesion (typically >6mm)
  108. Lentigo meligna
    • Remains localized for 10-15 years then becomes invasive
    • Elderly
  109. Superficial spreading melanoma
    70% of all malignant pigmentary tumors and teh most common form.
  110. Nodular melanoma
    Rapidly growing and infiltrating variant of melanoma
  111. Osteogenesis imperfecta
    • Brittle bone disease
    • abnormal development of type 1 collagen (Most Autosomal Dominant)
    • Will often have a blue sclera
  112. Osteopetrosis
    • Marble bone disease
    • Caused by deficient osteoclastic activity
    • Both Autosomal Dominant/Recessive forms
  113. Achondroplasia
    • Impaired maturation of cartilage in teh developing growth plate
    • Major cause of Dwarfism
    • Most common disorder for growth plates
  114. Osteomyelitis
    • Bacterial infection of bones-most notably Staph
    • Most often originates in the Metaphysis (neck)
    • Children: often associated with bacteremia
    • Adults: Most often complication of bone fractures or surgery and IV drug users
  115. Osteoporosis
    • Skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro architectureal deterioration
    • Most common bone disorder seen in clinic
  116. Primary osteoporosis
    • Appears to be genetic predisposition
    • Decreased estrogen
    • Aging
    • Women with small frames
    • Caucasions
  117. Secondary osteopororsis
    • Chronic corticosteriod administration
    • Malignancies
    • Malabsorbion syndromes
    • Certain chronic prescription drugs
    • smoking/alcohol abuse
    • Inadequate CA intake
  118. Osteomalacia
    • Softening of the bones due to inadequate mineraliazation of the bone matrix
    • Kids: Rickets
    • Result of inaequate Vit. D/phosphorus
  119. Paget's Disease
    • Osteitis Deformans
    • Excessive resorption of bone that causes cracks and fissures followed by excessive disorganized bone formation
    • Most often affects the cranium and the long bones of the lower extremities
  120. Bone tumors
    • Primary are rare
    • Secondary: 10:1, mostly breast, prostate, lung, kidney and thyroid
  121. Osteoma
    • Benign lesions of the bone
    • Most common in the head and neck
    • Not invasive
  122. Chondroma
    • Benign tumors of the cartilage
    • Occasionally give rise to malagnant tumors
  123. Nonossifying fibroma
    • Benign lesions of fibroblasts
    • Space occupying lesion
  124. Malignant Bone tumors
    • 4 Most common
    • Osteosarcoma 10-25
    • Chondrosarcoma 35-60
    • Ewing's sarcoma 10-20
    • Giant cell tumor 20-40
    • More often in males
  125. Osteosarcoma
    • Most common primary malignant bone tumor in children
    • Most ofent involves the metaphysis of long bones
    • 50% in the knee
  126. Chondrosarcoma
    • Most commonly found in the axial skeleton
    • Insensitive to chemo
  127. Ewing's Sarcoma
    • Second most common tumor of bones in children
    • Typically in diaphysis
  128. Osteoarthritis
    • Degenerative Joint Disease (DJD)
    • Most common form of joint disease
    • Primary: Unknown
    • Secondary: Normal wear/tear of articular cartilage
    • Erosion of wt bearing joints and fingers, narrowing joint space, not inflammatory
  129. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Chronic, SYMETRICAL inflammation of joints
    • More common in women
    • Proliferation of synovium, joint erodes and can be completely obliterated
  130. Lyme disease
    • Borrelia burgdorferi, bacterial
    • TX by deer ticks
    • Migrating skin rash, target lesion, most often affects the knee
  131. Gout
    • Hyperuricemia, deposition of uric acid in tissues
    • Mostly male, overproducers of uric acid
    • Secondary: other diseases resulting in increased uric acid
    • Most common is acute painfull swelling of the big toe metatarsalphalangial joint
    • Chronic: Less inflammation, more deformaties, uric acid kidney stones
  132. Myasthenia Gravis
    • Acquired autoimmune disease, muscular weakness
    • Autoantibodies are direted against the acetylcholine receptors
    • Eyelids show ptosis, "mask like" facies, death from paralysis of the diaphram
  133. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
    • The most common type of muscular dystrophy
    • X linked recessive
    • Avg. onset 3-5 yrs, initiall affects the pelvic girdle, mental retardation
    • Die usually by 25
  134. Becker's muscular dystrophy
    • Mild Duchenne's, X linked recessive
    • Onset later, 5-10
    • Deformaties and disablities progress slower
  135. Myotonic muscular dystrophy
    • Second most common genetic muslce disorder
    • Autosomal Dominant
    • Symptoms apprear in adulthood
    • Frontal baldness, testicular atrophy, "Hatchet" face, ptosis of eyelids
    • Muscles can contract but remain contracted for some time
  136. Congenital myopathies
    • Generalized muscle weakness
    • Floppy child syndrome
    • Cerebral Palsy: Upper neuron disorder, most common muscle weakness disorder in children
  137. Rhabdomyosarcoma
    • Malignant mesenchymal neoplasm that exhibitis skeletal muscle differentiation
    • Most common sarcoma in the pediatric pop.
  138. Synovial Sarcoma
    • Highly malignant
    • Doesn't arise from synovial cells
  139. Fibrous Histiocytoma
    Benign lesion that present as well defined mobile nodules in the dermis or subcutaneous tissue
  140. Dermatofibrosarcoma
    Often involves dermis and subcutaneous tissue
  141. Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma
    • Most common Sarcoma of adults
    • Aggressive soft tissue sarcoma
  142. Lipoma
    Benign, well circumscribed tumor consisting of well differentiated addipocytes
  143. Liposarcoma
    • Second most common sarcoma of adulthood
    • Malignant fat cells
  144. Epidural Hematoma
    • Accumulation of blood between teh skull and the dura
    • Ruptured meningeal artery from fractured temporal bone
    • Could take hours for large hematoma to form
    • Initial loss of conscienceness, short period of lucidity, followed by rapidly developing signs of cerebral compression
  145. Subdural Hematoma
    • Accumulation of blood between teh dura and the arachnoid
    • Bridging VEINS between the dura and the arachnoid are torn
    • Venous blood will clot faster
    • Gradual signs occuring hours-days-weeks after injury
  146. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    • Bleeding between the arachnoid membrane and the surface of the brain (pia mater)
    • Often caused by traumatic contusion to the brain, blood vessels from base of brain leak into the potential space
    • Ruptured congenital "berry" aneurysms of the circl of willis
  147. Berry Aneurysms
    • Small aneurysm's at the base of the brain in the cirlce of willis.
    • Sudden severe HA, followed by coma
    • Associated with polycystic kidney disease
  148. Atherosclerotic Aneurysms
    • Usually confined to larger cerebral arteries (vertebral, basilar, internal corotid)
    • Provides a site for a thrombus to form
  149. Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    • Contusion of the cortex of the brain with bleeding from the ruptured intracerebral vessels
    • Common in all types of head trauma
    • Common in Leukemia
  150. Cerebrovascular Disease
    • Most important manifestation is strokes
    • Due to atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries
    • Eventual complete disruptionfo blood flow can result leading to an infarct
  151. Cerebral ischemia
    • Global: affects the entire brain due to lack of perfusion often during shock
    • Regional: Usually caused by a throbosis in a cerbral artery (stroke or CVA) most commonly at the site of trifurcation of the middle cerebral artery
  152. Cerebral infart/ischemia
    • Embolisms cause an abrupt cerebral dysfunction
    • Thrombus cause gradual onset of symptoms
    • Sudden onset of paralysis of portions of the contralateral side of the body, partial loss of vision in one eye, inabiliity to speak, drooping mouth, loss of conscienceness
  153. Leptomeningitis
    Infection of CSF between the pia mater and arachnoid, usually caused by hematogenous spread
  154. Pachymeningitis
    Infection of the dura mater ususally due to contiguous infection of the sinus or mastoids
  155. Bacterial Meningitits
    • Most caused by Group B Strep and E coli (neonates)
    • HIB
    • Strep pneumo (most cases in older adults and young children)
    • Neisseria Meningitides (older children, adolescents, young adults
  156. Bacterial Meningitis
    Clinical Characteristics
    • Pt. c/o HA, vomiting, + Kernigs, + Brudzinski,
    • CSF: Cloudy, low glucose, high protien, neutrophils
  157. Viral Meningitits
    • Usually due to coxsackie virus, echo virus, mumpus, EBV, HSV
    • pt c/o HA, vomiting, fever
    • +Kernigs, Brudzinski
    • CSF-Clear, normal to eleveated protien, normal glucose, + lymphocytes
  158. Rabies
    • TX by saliva of infected animal (carnivore), virus travels via peripherial nerve to CNS
    • If reaches brain, fatal-brain stem inflammation then cerebellum and hypothalamus
  159. Multiple Sclerosis
    • Most common CNS disease in the US
    • Affects women more, rarely before puberty or after 50
    • Demylinating disease of CNS
    • Dx made by 2 seperate sets of CNS symptoms that occur in at least 2 episodes separated by a month or morept presents with parasthesia with tingling
  160. Alzheimer's Disease
    • Form of dementia, result of deposits of beta amyloid wich form plaques in the cerebral cortex
    • Gradual loss of memory and cognitive ability along with peronality changes
  161. Parkinson's Disease
    • Loss of pigmented neurons in the subsantia nigra of midbrain which control muscle activitiy
    • Cogwheel rigidity found on PE
    • pt has slowness of voluntary muscular movement and a resting tremor of the hands
  162. Huntington's Disease
    • Autosomal Dominant neurodegenerative disorder
    • Primarily affects striatal neurons and the cerebral cortex
    • pt presents with involuntary gyrating movements of the trunk and limb (choreiform gait), postural instabliity
    • pt deteriorates rapidly
  163. Myopia
    • Near sighted
    • Image is focused in front of the vision field
  164. Hyperopia
    • Farsighted
    • Image would be focused behind the vision field
  165. Astigmatism
    • Irregular lens or cornea result in uneven refraction fo the light
    • Most common eye problem
  166. Presbyopia
    • Farsightedness of old age
    • Thought to be loss of elasticity of lens
  167. Strabismus
    • "Lazy eye"
    • The eye's don't align and focus on the same object
    • Negatively affects the depth perception
  168. Conjunctivitis
    • Pink eye-Highly contagious
    • Infection fo the conjunciva lining the anterior side of the eye and the inside of the palpebrae
  169. Dacryocyctitis
    Inflammed and blocked tear duct
  170. Hordeolum
    • Stye
    • Infection of the hair follicle or sweat gland
  171. Chalazion
    Blockage of a hair follicle or sweat gland
  172. Blepharitis
    Inflammation of the eyelids
  173. Keratitis
    When an infection extends into the cornea or when conjunctivitis presents as an ulcerating disease
  174. Trachoma
    • Conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis also vectored by a fly
    • Leading cause of preventable blindness world wide
  175. Cataracts
    Opacity of the normally clear lens
  176. Otitis Externa
    • Infection of the outer ear
    • Could be bacterial, viral, fungal
  177. Allergic otitis externa
    Often children suffering from atopic dermatitis
  178. Otitis media
    • Middle ear infetion usually from upper resp. infection causing edema of the eustachian tube and accumulation of fluid
    • Chronic: May put tubes in
  179. Cholesteatoma
    • Benign tumor, pearly white appearance
    • Epidermal inclusion cyst
  180. Otosclerosis
    • Autosomal Dominant appearing in 30's-40's
    • Bilateral hearing loss, worse in one ear
    • Deposits bone on both sides of oval window encompasssing bones of the middle ear preventing movement
  181. Meniere's Disease
    • Episodic vertigo
    • Tinnitus
  182. Deafness
    • Conductive: Assoc. with TM dysfxn, external/middle ear
    • Sensory: Cochlear abnormalities, repetitive noise trauma,
    • Neural: Least common, damage to the CN, MS, CVA

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