Micro: Chapter 2: Chemistry

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natyf21
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Micro: Chapter 2: Chemistry
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2010-12-10 23:02:15
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Micro Chapter CHemistry
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Micro:Chapter 2: Chemistry
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  1. Smallest unit of matter with unique characteristics
    Atom
  2. The postice charge of a proton is balnced by
    the negative charge of an electron
  3. electrons move around the nucleus in an atom on pathways calleded
    Orbitals
  4. bonds in which electrons share
    covalent
  5. a hydrogen stom and oxygen atom adjacent to each other make a
    hydrogen bond
  6. an atom that can donate elcetron during a reaction is called?
    Oxidizing agent
  7. int he solution Nacl and water what is Nacl? and what is the water?
    Solute and solvent
  8. Fructose is a type of
    Monosacharide
  9. Bonding between a polysacharide and ploypeptidea has a removal of
    Water molecule
  10. the monomer unit of a polysacharide such as starch and cellulose, most common and universally important monosacchride
    Glucose
  11. proteins are systhesized by linking amino acids with what type of bond?
    peptide
  12. which hereditary molecule is made up of Deoxyribose, phosphate and nitrogen gas?
    DNA
  13. Proteins can funtions as
    enzymes, receptors, and antibodies
  14. RNA plays and important role in what biological process?
    Protein Synthesis
  15. where are protons found?
    Atomic Nucleus
  16. An element has a characteristic stomic structure and predictcable chemical behavior
    Element
  17. forms of elements that have different numbers of neutrons
    Isotopes
  18. The valence of an element determines
    the number of covalent bonds it can make
  19. bond that shares electrons between partners
    covalent
  20. what type of reaction is this AB-> A+B
  21. Repels Water
    Hydrophobic
  22. polysacchrides are formed by what links
    Dehydration Synthesis
  23. Building blocks of proteins are
    Amino Acids
  24. Membranes are
    double layers of phospoholipids
  25. Organic molecules always contain
    Hydrogen and Carbon
  26. Amino acids always include what functional groups?
    Alpha Carbon, hydrogen, amino group
  27. what are the nitrogenous gases of RNA?
    Cytosine, uracil, and adenine
  28. the primary stucture of a protein relates to the
    sequence of amino acids
  29. t or f
    An acid is a compounds that releases H+1 ions when disassociating
    True
  30. when an is transfered from one molecule to another it is termed a
    redox reaction
  31. t or f

    cholesterol ass strength to the cell membrane in animal cells
    True
  32. Maltose, sucrose, and lactose are termed
    Disaccharides
  33. glucose, galactose, and fructose are termed
    Momsachrides
  34. protons and neutrons make up what part of an atom?
    Nucleus
  35. Polar Molcules have an unequal distribution of?
    charge
  36. electrons moved completely from one atom to another is what type of bond?
    Ionic Bond
  37. Positively charge ions
    Cations
  38. Negatively charged ions
    Anions
  39. A molecular formula
    gives atomic symbols and the number of elements involved in subscript

    H20
  40. what type of chemical equation is
    A+B-> AB
    Synthesis
  41. What type of chemical equation is
    AB+ XY AX+YB
    Exchange
  42. increase the rate of reaction
    Enzyme
  43. The amount of solute dissolved in a certain amount of solvent

    Expresses in molarity (M)
    Concentration
  44. Like dissolves Like
    The rule of solubility
  45. Most common solvent
    water
  46. Hydrophillic
    • attract molecules
    • Polar
  47. Amphipathic
    have both hydrophillin and hydrophobic properties
  48. when a compound disolved in water release an Hydrogen (H) it is termed
    Acidic
  49. When a component releases excess hyroxide ions (OH)
    Basic
  50. occurs in aqeous solutions containing both acids and basics
    Neutalization reaction
  51. inorganic chemicals usually do not contain
    carbon and hydrogen
  52. soecial molecular groups or accesory molcules the bond to organic compunds
    Functional groups
  53. Functional Groups can
    help define the chemical class of certain groups of organic compounds

    Give organic compounds unique reactive properties

    The reaction of organic compounds can be predicted in the funtional groups are known
  54. Sugars and polysacchrides are
    Carbohydrates
  55. Biochemistery
    study of the compounds of life
  56. organics compounds produced by (or compounds of) living things
    Biochemicals
  57. Functions of polysacchrides
    • structural support and protection
    • serve as nutriend and energy source
  58. cells walls in many plants and algea
    CELLULOSE
  59. TRIGLYCERIDE IS KNOWN AS A
    Lipid
  60. cholesterol is known as a
    steroid
  61. Nitrogenous base, a phospahte group, and a pentose sugar are best know as
    Nucleotides
  62. Nitrogen is not present in
    Monosaccharides
  63. organic chemistry is a sicence based on the study of
    Carbon compounds
  64. the two functional groups always found in amino acids
    Carboxyl and amino

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