Vitamins

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
54917
Filename:
Vitamins
Updated:
2010-12-11 00:39:15
Tags:
fnh vitamins
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Description:
fnh 477 vitamins
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  1. Vit A ingested as:
    • vitamin A
    • carotenoid precursors
  2. Vit A def. signs
    • REVERSIBLE!
    • growth retardation
    • high mortality
    • exophthalmia and cataracts
    • decreased hepatosomatic index
    • anemia
  3. Pigment of "salmon colour"
    Astaxanthin
  4. Vit A in freshwater fish vs. seawater fish
    • seawater: vitamin A1
    • freshwater: vitamin A2
  5. Vit D def. signs
    muscle weakness -> drooping of caudal fin
  6. Vit D forms
    • Vitamin D
    • Vitamin D2
    • Vitamin D3 (3x more active vs. Vit D2)
  7. Vit E function
    antioxidant
  8. Vit E def. signs
    • anemia
    • fragile, irregular erythrocytes
    • decreased hemotcrit
    • hypersensitive to handling
    • yellowish fluid in body cavity
    • nutritional muscular dystrophy
  9. Vit K functions
    normal blood clotting
  10. Vit K source
    produced by MO - though bacterial growth is slower in lower temp enviro, fish have longer feed passage time

    old feed were contaminated therefore provided Vit K
  11. Vit K def. signs
    • hemorrhaging --> anemia
    • bleeding out
  12. Biotin function
    FA elongation
  13. Biotin def. signs
    • blue slime disease (brown trout)
    • muscle atrophy
    • enthrocyte fragmentation and anemia
    • gill degeneration
    • enlargement and friability of liver
  14. Folacin def. signs
    • macrocytic, normochromic anemia*
    • poor growth
    • decreased appetite
    • lethargy
    • fragile fins
    • dark skin pigmentation
    • infarction of spleen
  15. Niacin def. signs
    • photosensitivity ("sun burn")*
    • poor growth
    • decreased appetite
    • muscle weakness
    • spasms when resting
    • mortality
  16. Pantothenic Acid def. signs
    • dietary/nutritional gill disease
    • "clubbing" of fills due to epithelial surface proliferation
  17. Pyridoxine (B6) function
    PRO synthesis
  18. Pyridoxine (B6) def. signs
    • **
    • epileptiform seizures
    • hyperirritability
    • erratic, spiral swimming
    • rapid breathing
    • flexing of opercules
    • rapid onset of rigour after death

    • decreased appetite
    • poor growth
    • poor feed conversion
  19. Riboflavin def. signs
    • ocular opacity* (irreversible)
    • lenticular/corneal cataracts* (irreversible)
    • photophobia (early sign)

    • rainbow trout:
    • letharg & muscle weakness
    • opercula flexing
    • anorexia
    • severe fin erosion
    • mortality
  20. Thiamin induced def.
    • anti-thiaminase present in carp tissue
    • raw fish and shellfish tissue have thiaminase. if feed stored for a long period, thiaminase acts of thiamin in the diet
  21. thiamin liability
    decreased if prepared under slightly alkaline conditions

    stable in dry head and pelleting
  22. Thiamin def. signs
    • neuritis
    • paralysis
    • loss of equilibrium
    • edema
    • induce violent fits w/ light
  23. Vit B12 def. signs
    microcytic, hypochromic anemia
  24. Vit B12 source
    not required dietarily, produced by MO
  25. Ascorbic Acid source
    Required dietarily b/c animals do not have L-gulonolactone oxidase required to synthesize ascorbic acid
  26. Ascorbic Acid def. signs
    • failure to hydroxylase proline -> defect in collagen formation:
    • lordosis
    • scoliosis
    • distortion of inter-vertebral disks & gill filament cartilage
    • broken back
    • skull & jaw cartilage abnormalities
    • delayed wound healing

    decreased osteoblastic activity -> decreased bone formation
  27. Ascorbic Acid function
    antioxidant
  28. Ascorbic Acid lability
    • decreased:
    • feed processing
    • storage

    cooking prevents loss
  29. Choline function
    important for max growth and prevents: fatty liver, hemorrhage in kidney & intestine
  30. Myo-inositol source
    • animal: phosphatidylinositol
    • plant: phytin
  31. Myo-inositol def. signs
    • poor growth
    • increased gastric emptying time
    • edema
    • dark colouring
    • distended stomach (poor digestion & feed utilization)
    • lipodystrophy: accumulation of fat in intestinal mucolas cells

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