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what are the 5 reproductive functions?
- 1. production of gametes under direction of hormones
- 2. sex transports male and female gametes to a common meeting place
- 3. a zygote is produced by the fusion of a male and female gamete
- 4. birth occurs and the species continues.
what are accessory sex organs?
glands and ducts for transport and nourishment of the gametes; external genitalia
what does the scrotum contain?
what does the scrotum do for the testes?
what temp. is need for proper sperm production?
it helps the testes maintain proper temperature.
3 degrees below core body temp. (37 degrees c)
what does the cremaster muscle do?
it pulls the testes closer to the body when its cold. and in warmer temp. it relaxes and lets the testes down
what is the tunica vaginalis?
serous membrane that lines the outside of the testis and the inside of the scrotum; reduces friction between the two
what is the tunica albuginea?
outter connective tissue layer of the testes which extends into the onterior of the testes as septa.
what is the speta?
divides the testes into lobules
what do the seminferous tubules do?
they produce sperm
what are the interstitial cells?
- endocrine cells located between the seminiferous tubules.
- they secrete testosterone
what is the prepuce?
what is the glans penis?
enlarged tip at the end
lines the urethra
make up most of the mass of the penis
what is the epididymis?
- where sperm mature and are stored;where they gain ability to swim and fertilize.
- sperm is ejaculated from here
what is the ductus deferens (vas deferens)?
tranports sperm during ejaculation to the ejaculatory duct
formed by the joining of the ductus deferens and seminal vesicle duct, transports sperm through the prostate gland and joins with the urethra
carries sperm from the ejaculatory duct to the outside of the body. male urethra is divided into 3 segments
3 segments of the urethra?
- 1. prostatic urethra: 1st segment extends through the prostate gland
- 2. membranous urethra :short segment inside the urogenital diaphragm
- 3. spongy (penile) urethra: longest portion of the urethra extending through the penis
how does sperm flow through the duct system?
- ductus deferens
- ejaculatory duct
contains the ductus defrens, testicular blood vessels, nerves; passes through the inguinal canal
seminal vesicles ?
- produces fluid thta conatains fructose, vitamin C and other nutrients to nourish sperm alos other nutrients to aid sperm viability
- produces fibrinogen that helps form a clot of semen in the vagina
- causes a slight alkalinity which helps to neutralize acids in the secretions from the prostate gland within the vagina
encircles the urethra just inferior to the bladder contains various enzymes that clot and liquefy ejaculated semen and substances to enhance sperm motility.
prostaic fluid is slightly _______in pH
and contributes to ___to____% of the volume of semen. it contains __________ which is an _______ that helps prevent _________.
pea sized glands that produce a thick alkaline mucus that lubricates the urethra for safe passage of sperm
what does semen contain?
sperm, and secretion fromthe seminal vesicles and the prostate gland
how is a erection controlled?
by the parasympathetic innercatin of the arteries and smooth muscles of the erectile tissues of the penis
how is a erection initiated?
by the postganglionic parasympathetic neurons which use the neurotransmitter nitric oxide
what control is ejactulation under?
how much semen is released?
under sympathetic nervous control
2-5 ml containing 200-400 million sperm
what si spermatogenesis?
the process of forming sperm
head contains a nucleus with __ densly packed _________.
tip of the head contains enzymes thst breakdown the mucus of the female tract and around the egg.
midpiece provides ATPto move the tail
the tail part which moves the sperm
what is spermatogenesis?
by the hormones FSH and LH from the ant. pituatary gland and testosterone from the intersistial cells
released from the hypothalamus causes the ant. pit. to release LH and FSH
GnRH secreted in pulses at 60 to 90 min intervals stays constant this results in plasma levels of FSH and LH and testoterone stying within narrow range
secreted from Ant. Pit. causes testosterone secretion from cells in the testes
- secreted from Ant. Pit. it targets sustenacular cells
- in the presence of testoterone FSH promotes spermatogenesis
secreted by the intersistial cells of the testes stimulates spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis
afftects the CNS libido and related behaviors
- stimulates metabolism
- establishes and mantains secondary sex characteristics
- levels remain constant until age 30 then begin to diminish
ductus deferens are cut ends are closed sperm can produce but cant exit body
- usually the result of a birth defect affects 2% of males
- deep inguinal ring gets enlarged allowing coils of intestine to enter the inguinal canal
what is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?
- enlargment of the prostate;
- occurs in 50% of men at age 50.
- enlarged proatate constricts the urethra and makes urination difficult
what is prostate cancer?
2ndmost common cause of cancer in men a PSA is done to detect cancer
tumors are firm painless lumps usually curable if detected early by doing regualr exams
properties of ovaries?
- produce eggs
- when egg is relased its a oocyte
- secrete inhibin which in invovled in feedback control of pituitary FSH production
what are uterine tubes?
what are they the site of?
also called oviducts
the site of fertilization
what are fimbriae?
help guide the oocyte into the uterine tube
what does the uterus do?
what does it consist of?
supports the growth and development of the embryo and fetus
consists of the body(major portion) the cervix (inferior portion that projects into the vagina)
what are the 3 layers of the uterien wall?
perimetrium: outtermost layer composed of visceral peritoneum
myometrium: middle muscular layer that contracts and expels the baby during childbirth
endometrium: inner lining of the uterine cavity composed of stratum functionalis and stream basalis
if fertilization does not occur during the menstrual cycle what happens?
the stratum functionalis is shed and the stratum basalis is not shed it produces more stratum functionalis
what does the vagina consist of?
the inner lining of non permanent folds called rugae that allows it to be highly distensible
the vaginal orfice
what is the vaginal orfice?
- the external opening
- opening is partially covered by the hymen
3 major function of the vagina?
organ that receives the penis and holds the spermatoza prior to passage into the uterus
serves as a passageway for the elimination of monthly menstrual fluids
it forms the inferior portion of the birth canal thtrough which the fetus passes during delivery
egg movement through the duct system?
what does the vulva consist of?
the external genitalia
fatty rounded pad covering the pubic symphysis
labia majora (majus)?
outter lips that enclose the labia minora
labia minora (minus)?
2 inner lips which enclose the vestibule and clit
- contains erectile tissue like the penis
- covered by the hooded fold of the skin called the prepuce
- houses the external openings of hte urethra and vagina
- conatains a pair of vestibular glands which secrete a mucus into the vaginal orfice to facilitate sexual intercourse
the mammary glands consist of?
15-25 lobes that have smaller lobules whicj have glandular alveoli that produce milk
alveolar glands pass the milk into the laciferous ducts which open to the outside at the nipple
milk accumulates during nursing in the lactiferous sinuses
what is oogenesis?
- the entire process of producing the ova includes the chromosome reduction divisions of meosis
- takes many years to complete
what are primary oocytes?
- produced before birth
- remain "stalled" in meosis I for decades until puberty is reached and ovulation begins
what is a secondary ocyte ?
is released at ovulation and stays arrested in the middle of meiosis II unless it is penetratred by a sperm within the uterine tube
when is the egg considered a ovam?
after sperm penetration the secondary oocyte completes meiosis II and the egg is now technically a ovam
what does the four daughter cells produce include?
3polar bodies and one ovam
what is the ovarioan cycle ?
what starts it?
the menstrual cycle as it relates to the ovary
the rising FSH levels start it
3 cycles of the ovarian cycle?
- follicular phase
- luteal phase
what is the follicular phase ?
- primordial follicles consist of an oocyte surrouded by supportive follicualar cells
- the start of the ovarian cycle 6-12 primordial follicles start to grow and mature one eventually released during ovualtion
- its controlled by follicle stimulating hormone
one secondary oocyte exits from one of the 2 ovaries and enters the uterine tube it is controlled by LH
what is the luteal phase?
following the ovulation the follicle that is left behind in the ovary it becomes the corpus lutenum
what is the corpus lutenum?
an endocrine gland that secretes estrogens and progesterones which prepare the uterus for implantation of an embryo
what does GnRH do?
- it regualtes reproductive function and triggers the release of LH and FSH
- the GnRH pulse frequency and amplitude change throughout the course of the ovarian cycle
where is estrogen secreted?
what are the effects of estrogen?
secreted from the developing follicular cells.
- stimulate bone and muscle growth
- casue deposition of adipose tissue
- affect hair growth patterns
- affect CNS activity, sex related activities and drives
- maintain accessory reproductive glands and organs
- initiate growth and repair of the endomettrisl lining
what triggers LH?
- the completion of meiosis I by the primary oocyte
- the rupture of the follicular wall
- ovulation (34-38 hours after LH surge)
- corpus luteum formation
- progesterone secretion
what is progesterone?
secreted by the corpus luteum it stimulates the growth of the endometrial lining and also maintains it
what is the female sexual response?
- increase in the parasympathetic overflow to the pelvic nerves
- leads to engorgment of the erectile tissue od the clit
- increased secretion og the vestibular glands
clitorial erection increases receptor sensitivity to stim. causing the vestib. glands to lubricate the vaginal walls
when does menopause usually occur?
what causes the irregular cycles?
shortage of primordial follicles
what can declining estrogen levels lead to?
- reduction in the size of breasts and uterus
- thining of the vaginal epithelia
- hot flashes
- anxiety and depression
- increased risk of cardiovascular disease
what can lower the risk?
5th common cause of death in women
pregnancies and oral contraceptives
- 4th most common cancerin women
- arises in the endometrium of the uterus
- bleeding frommthe vagina may bea symptom
what causes cervical cancer?
90% of cases are caused by the human papilloma virus
2nd most common cause of cancer in women after linf cancer
occurs outside of the uterus usually in the tube often fatak to the woman if left untreated