unit 12 reproductive

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unit 12 reproductive
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2010-12-11 15:47:22
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unit 12 reproductive
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  1. what are the 5 reproductive functions?
    • 1. production of gametes under direction of hormones
    • 2. sex transports male and female gametes to a common meeting place
    • 3. a zygote is produced by the fusion of a male and female gamete
    • 4. birth occurs and the species continues.
  2. what are accessory sex organs?
    glands and ducts for transport and nourishment of the gametes; external genitalia
  3. what does the scrotum contain?
    the testes
  4. what does the scrotum do for the testes?
    what temp. is need for proper sperm production?
    it helps the testes maintain proper temperature.

    3 degrees below core body temp. (37 degrees c)
  5. what does the cremaster muscle do?
    it pulls the testes closer to the body when its cold. and in warmer temp. it relaxes and lets the testes down
  6. what is the tunica vaginalis?
    serous membrane that lines the outside of the testis and the inside of the scrotum; reduces friction between the two
  7. what is the tunica albuginea?
    outter connective tissue layer of the testes which extends into the onterior of the testes as septa.
  8. what is the speta?
    divides the testes into lobules
  9. what do the seminferous tubules do?
    they produce sperm
  10. what are the interstitial cells?
    • endocrine cells located between the seminiferous tubules.
    • they secrete testosterone
  11. what is the prepuce?
    what is the glans penis?
    the foreskin

    enlarged tip at the end
  12. erectile tissue:

    corpus spongiosum?
    corpora cavernosa?
    lines the urethra

    make up most of the mass of the penis
  13. what is the epididymis?
    • where sperm mature and are stored;where they gain ability to swim and fertilize.
    • sperm is ejaculated from here
  14. what is the ductus deferens (vas deferens)?
    tranports sperm during ejaculation to the ejaculatory duct
  15. ejaculatory duct?
    formed by the joining of the ductus deferens and seminal vesicle duct, transports sperm through the prostate gland and joins with the urethra
  16. urethra?
    carries sperm from the ejaculatory duct to the outside of the body. male urethra is divided into 3 segments
  17. 3 segments of the urethra?
    and function?
    • 1. prostatic urethra: 1st segment extends through the prostate gland
    • 2. membranous urethra :short segment inside the urogenital diaphragm
    • 3. spongy (penile) urethra: longest portion of the urethra extending through the penis
  18. how does sperm flow through the duct system?
    • testis
    • epididymis
    • ductus deferens
    • ejaculatory duct
    • urethra
  19. spermatic cord?
    contains the ductus defrens, testicular blood vessels, nerves; passes through the inguinal canal
  20. seminal vesicles ?
    • produces fluid thta conatains fructose, vitamin C and other nutrients to nourish sperm alos other nutrients to aid sperm viability
    • produces fibrinogen that helps form a clot of semen in the vagina
    • causes a slight alkalinity which helps to neutralize acids in the secretions from the prostate gland within the vagina
  21. prostate gland?
    encircles the urethra just inferior to the bladder contains various enzymes that clot and liquefy ejaculated semen and substances to enhance sperm motility.
  22. prostaic fluid is slightly _______in pH
    and contributes to ___to____% of the volume of semen. it contains __________ which is an _______ that helps prevent _________.
    • acidic
    • 20-30
    • seminalplasmin
    • antibiotic
    • UTI's
  23. bulbourethral glands?
    pea sized glands that produce a thick alkaline mucus that lubricates the urethra for safe passage of sperm
  24. what does semen contain?
    sperm, and secretion fromthe seminal vesicles and the prostate gland
  25. how is a erection controlled?
    by the parasympathetic innercatin of the arteries and smooth muscles of the erectile tissues of the penis
  26. how is a erection initiated?
    by the postganglionic parasympathetic neurons which use the neurotransmitter nitric oxide
  27. what control is ejactulation under?
    how much semen is released?
    under sympathetic nervous control

    2-5 ml containing 200-400 million sperm
  28. what si spermatogenesis?
    the process of forming sperm
  29. sperm anatomy:
    head contains a nucleus with __ densly packed _________.
    • 23
    • chromosomes
  30. sperm anatomy:

    acrosomal cap?
    mitochondria?
    flagellum?
    tip of the head contains enzymes thst breakdown the mucus of the female tract and around the egg.

    midpiece provides ATPto move the tail

    the tail part which moves the sperm
  31. what is spermatogenesis?
    by the hormones FSH and LH from the ant. pituatary gland and testosterone from the intersistial cells
  32. GnRH?
    released from the hypothalamus causes the ant. pit. to release LH and FSH

    GnRH secreted in pulses at 60 to 90 min intervals stays constant this results in plasma levels of FSH and LH and testoterone stying within narrow range
  33. LH?
    secreted from Ant. Pit. causes testosterone secretion from cells in the testes
  34. FSH?
    • secreted from Ant. Pit. it targets sustenacular cells
    • in the presence of testoterone FSH promotes spermatogenesis
  35. testosterone?
    secreted by the intersistial cells of the testes stimulates spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis

    afftects the CNS libido and related behaviors

    • stimulates metabolism
    • establishes and mantains secondary sex characteristics
    • levels remain constant until age 30 then begin to diminish
  36. vasectomy?
    ductus deferens are cut ends are closed sperm can produce but cant exit body
  37. inguinal hernia?
    • usually the result of a birth defect affects 2% of males
    • deep inguinal ring gets enlarged allowing coils of intestine to enter the inguinal canal
  38. what is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)?
    • enlargment of the prostate;
    • occurs in 50% of men at age 50.
    • enlarged proatate constricts the urethra and makes urination difficult
  39. what is prostate cancer?
    2ndmost common cause of cancer in men a PSA is done to detect cancer
  40. testicular cancer?
    tumors are firm painless lumps usually curable if detected early by doing regualr exams
  41. properties of ovaries?
    • produce eggs
    • when egg is relased its a oocyte
    • secrete inhibin which in invovled in feedback control of pituitary FSH production
  42. what are uterine tubes?
    what are they the site of?
    also called oviducts

    the site of fertilization
  43. what are fimbriae?
    help guide the oocyte into the uterine tube
  44. what does the uterus do?
    what does it consist of?
    supports the growth and development of the embryo and fetus

    consists of the body(major portion) the cervix (inferior portion that projects into the vagina)
  45. what are the 3 layers of the uterien wall?
    perimetrium: outtermost layer composed of visceral peritoneum

    myometrium: middle muscular layer that contracts and expels the baby during childbirth

    endometrium: inner lining of the uterine cavity composed of stratum functionalis and stream basalis
  46. if fertilization does not occur during the menstrual cycle what happens?
    the stratum functionalis is shed and the stratum basalis is not shed it produces more stratum functionalis
  47. what does the vagina consist of?
    the inner lining of non permanent folds called rugae that allows it to be highly distensible

    the vaginal orfice
  48. what is the vaginal orfice?
    • the external opening
    • opening is partially covered by the hymen
  49. 3 major function of the vagina?
    organ that receives the penis and holds the spermatoza prior to passage into the uterus

    serves as a passageway for the elimination of monthly menstrual fluids

    it forms the inferior portion of the birth canal thtrough which the fetus passes during delivery
  50. egg movement through the duct system?
    • ovary
    • uterine tube
    • uterus
  51. what does the vulva consist of?
    the external genitalia
  52. mons pubis?
    fatty rounded pad covering the pubic symphysis
  53. labia majora (majus)?
    outter lips that enclose the labia minora
  54. labia minora (minus)?
    2 inner lips which enclose the vestibule and clit
  55. clitoris?
    • contains erectile tissue like the penis
    • covered by the hooded fold of the skin called the prepuce
  56. vestibule?
    • houses the external openings of hte urethra and vagina
    • conatains a pair of vestibular glands which secrete a mucus into the vaginal orfice to facilitate sexual intercourse
  57. the mammary glands consist of?
    15-25 lobes that have smaller lobules whicj have glandular alveoli that produce milk

    alveolar glands pass the milk into the laciferous ducts which open to the outside at the nipple

    milk accumulates during nursing in the lactiferous sinuses
  58. what is oogenesis?
    • the entire process of producing the ova includes the chromosome reduction divisions of meosis
    • takes many years to complete
  59. what are primary oocytes?
    • produced before birth
    • remain "stalled" in meosis I for decades until puberty is reached and ovulation begins
  60. what is a secondary ocyte ?
    is released at ovulation and stays arrested in the middle of meiosis II unless it is penetratred by a sperm within the uterine tube
  61. when is the egg considered a ovam?
    after sperm penetration the secondary oocyte completes meiosis II and the egg is now technically a ovam
  62. what does the four daughter cells produce include?
    3polar bodies and one ovam
  63. what is the ovarioan cycle ?

    what starts it?
    the menstrual cycle as it relates to the ovary

    the rising FSH levels start it
  64. 3 cycles of the ovarian cycle?
    • follicular phase
    • ovulation
    • luteal phase
  65. what is the follicular phase ?
    • primordial follicles consist of an oocyte surrouded by supportive follicualar cells
    • the start of the ovarian cycle 6-12 primordial follicles start to grow and mature one eventually released during ovualtion
    • its controlled by follicle stimulating hormone
  66. ovulation?
    one secondary oocyte exits from one of the 2 ovaries and enters the uterine tube it is controlled by LH
  67. what is the luteal phase?
    following the ovulation the follicle that is left behind in the ovary it becomes the corpus lutenum
  68. what is the corpus lutenum?
    an endocrine gland that secretes estrogens and progesterones which prepare the uterus for implantation of an embryo
  69. what does GnRH do?
    • it regualtes reproductive function and triggers the release of LH and FSH
    • the GnRH pulse frequency and amplitude change throughout the course of the ovarian cycle
  70. where is estrogen secreted?

    what are the effects of estrogen?
    secreted from the developing follicular cells.

    • effects:
    • stimulate bone and muscle growth
    • casue deposition of adipose tissue
    • affect hair growth patterns
    • affect CNS activity, sex related activities and drives
    • maintain accessory reproductive glands and organs
    • initiate growth and repair of the endomettrisl lining
  71. what triggers LH?
    • the completion of meiosis I by the primary oocyte
    • the rupture of the follicular wall
    • ovulation (34-38 hours after LH surge)
    • corpus luteum formation
    • progesterone secretion
  72. what is progesterone?
    secreted by the corpus luteum it stimulates the growth of the endometrial lining and also maintains it
  73. what is the female sexual response?
    • increase in the parasympathetic overflow to the pelvic nerves
    • leads to engorgment of the erectile tissue od the clit
    • increased secretion og the vestibular glands

    clitorial erection increases receptor sensitivity to stim. causing the vestib. glands to lubricate the vaginal walls
  74. when does menopause usually occur?
    what causes the irregular cycles?
    45-55

    shortage of primordial follicles
  75. what can declining estrogen levels lead to?
    • reduction in the size of breasts and uterus
    • thining of the vaginal epithelia
    • osteoporsis
    • hot flashes
    • anxiety and depression
    • increased risk of cardiovascular disease
  76. ovarian cancer?
    what can lower the risk?
    5th common cause of death in women

    pregnancies and oral contraceptives
  77. endometrial cancer?
    • 4th most common cancerin women
    • arises in the endometrium of the uterus
    • bleeding frommthe vagina may bea symptom
  78. what causes cervical cancer?
    90% of cases are caused by the human papilloma virus
  79. breast cancer?
    2nd most common cause of cancer in women after linf cancer
  80. ectopic pregnancy?
    occurs outside of the uterus usually in the tube often fatak to the woman if left untreated

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