NU 101 Final Prep 2

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NU 101 Final Prep 2
2010-12-11 12:35:05
NU Final Prep

NU 101 Final Prep 2
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  1. What is Emphysema?
    • Chronic; Non-reversible, obstructive pulmonary Dx; Decreased elastic recoil of the lung tissues, which causes a hyperinflation of the chest, leading to "Barrel Chest". Loss of lung elasticity in terminal bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli, and capillary beds.
    • Hyperinflation of lungs leads to decreased surface area for gas exchange.
  2. What are the symptoms of Chronic Hypoxemia?
    Clubbing of fingers and toes; increased BP, Increase Pulse, Increase RR. Confusion, impaired judgement, restlessness, tachycardia, cyanosis, decreased level of consciousness.
  3. What is Thrush?
    Yeast infection in the mouth; common in COPD.
  4. What is chronic Bronchitis?
    Bronchitis is inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs. Chronic bronchitis is a long-term condition. People have a cough that produces excessive mucus. To be diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, you must have a cough with mucus most days of the month for at least 3 months.
  5. What is Respiratory Acidosis?
    Respiratory acidosis is a condition that occurs when the lungs cannot remove all of the carbon dioxide the body produces. This disrupts the body's acid-base balance causing body fluids, especially the blood, to become too acidic.
  6. What is Pulmonary Fibrosis?
    Pulmonary fibrosis is the formation or development of excess fibrous connective tissue (fibrosis) in the lungs. It can be described as "scarring of the lung". Commonly caused by aesbestis.
  7. What is Core Pulmonale?
    Right sided heart failure
  8. What is the Huff Cough?
    Breathing out while saying Huff.
  9. What is Pursed Lip Breathing?
    One of the simplest ways to control SOB; breathing more effective; releases trapped air in the lungs; decreases the work or breathing; airways open longer; causes general relaxation.
  10. What is the care plan for COPD?
    Smoking cessation, limit salt intake to avoid fluid retention that could interfere with breathing, limit caffeine (causes nervousness), eat 6 small meals a day, wear NC before, during, and after meals due to energy loss.
  11. What is Dyspnea?
    breathlessness; difficulty in breathing, disordered or inadequate breathing
  12. What are the signs and symptoms of Hemmorhage?
    Increased wound drainage, restlessness, decreased BP, increased pulse.
  13. What is Oliguria?
    Scanty or greatly diminished amount of urine.
  14. What is Dysuria?
    Difficulty urinating.
  15. What is Atelectasis?
    Incomplete expansion or collapse of alveoli with retained mucus, involving a portion of lung and resulting in poor gas exchange. Decreased lung sounds over the infected area. Administer O2 Therapy.
  16. What is the most effective way to provide information?
    Written Instructions.
  17. What is Thrombophlebitis?
    Inflammation of a vein associated with a thrombus (blood clot) formation. Symptoms: Pain/cramping in the high or calf.
  18. What assessments are made in the PACU?
    Respiratory, Cardiovascular, CNS, Fluid, Wound, and General Condition status....Q 10-15 minutes.
  19. What is the Lithotomy Position?
    Gyno, rectal, urologic procedures....legs in stirrups.
  20. What is the Trendelenburg position?
    Lowering of upper torso and raising the feet. Lower abdomen or pelvis surgery. Decreases the diaphragm movement and respiratory exchange; Increased the BP.
  21. What lab tests identify Renal Failure?
    Blood Urea Nirogen and Creatinine (elevated)
  22. What are the 3 phases of General Anesthesia?
    • Induction (administering anesthetic agent, continues until the pt is ready for incision)
    • Maintenence (continues until the pt is near completion)
    • Emergence (Starts when the pt is coming out of anesthesia and ends when the pt is ready to leave the OR)
  23. What are the major risks of General Anesthesia?
    Respiratory Depression, Post-Op N&V, Alterations in Thermoregulation
  24. What are the benefits of Inhalation Anesthesia?
    Rapid Excretion and Reversal of Effects
  25. What are the 3 phases of Perioperative?
    • Preoperative (prior conversations up until the OR bed transfer)
    • Intraoperative (Transfer to the OR Bed to Recovery Area)
    • Postoperative (Admission through Recovery)
  26. What is a Pallative Surgery?
    To relieve or reduce intensity of an illness; is not curative---colostomy.
  27. What is an Ablative Surgery?
    Removal of a diseased body part; Appendectomy, Amputation.
  28. What is an Ileal Conduit?
    Cutaneous urinary diversion.
  29. What is Hesitancy?
    A delay or difficulty in initiating voiding.
  30. What is Crede's Manuver?
    A manual bladder compression technique.
  31. What is Transient Incontinence?
    Appears suddenly and lasts for 6 months or less.
  32. What is Stress Incontinence?
    Occurs when there is an involuntary loss of urine related to an increase in intra-abdominal pressure.
  33. What is Bacturiuria?
    An Asymptomatic condition in which bacteria is present in the urine.
  34. What are abnormal constitutes in the urine?
    Blood, pus, albumin, glucose, ketone bodies, casts, gross bacteria, bile.
  35. What is Pyuria?
    Pus in the Urine; Cloudy
  36. What is Polyuria?
    Excessive output of urine; Diuresis.
  37. What is Glycosuria?
    Pressence of sugar in the urine.
  38. What is Dysuria?
    Painful or difficult urination.
  39. What is Anuria?
    24 hour urine = less than 50 mL; symptoms of Renal Failure.
  40. What is the normal urine output per hour?
    60-120 mL/HR
  41. What is Hematuria?
    Blood in the urine; can be caused by anticoagulants.
  42. What is Enuresis?
    Wetting of clothes or the bed.
  43. How many mL's does the bladder typically fill to?
    150-250 mL's
  44. What is Tenitis?
    Ringing in the ears.
  45. What is Ascites?
    Fluid in the Abdomen; sign of a big problem.
  46. What Vitamin also acts as an Anticoagulant?
    Vitamin E
  47. Which regions of the area are the last to regain feeling after anesthesia?
    Peri area and the bottoms of feet.
  48. Why would a person have an NG tube? What are the Side Effects?
    Used for small bowel obstruction pts. It has a suction to decompress the stomach, but takes all fluid and electrolytes. Pts with an NG tube should be on an IV fluid with Potassium.
  49. What is the average fluid intake for an individual per day?
    1500 mL/day
  50. What is a Paralytic Ileus?
    Intestinal obstruction is a partial or complete blockage of the bowel that results in the failure of the intestinal contents to pass through.