Pyschology Chapter 7 Vocab

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Pyschology Chapter 7 Vocab
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2010-12-11 16:19:29
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pysch. chapter 7 vocab
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  1. a decision-making approach in which each alternative is rated on each important factor affecting the decision and the alternative rated highest overall is chosen
    Additive Strategy
  2. a heuristic strategy that applies a solution used for a past problem to a current problem that shares many similar features
    Ananlogy Heuristic
  3. a cognitive rile of thumb that bases the probability of an event or the importance assigned to it on its availability in memory
    Availability Heuristic
  4. the mental processes that are involved in acquiring, storing, retreiving, and using information and that include sensation, perception, memory, imagery, concept formation, reasoning, decision making, problem solving, and language
    Cognition
  5. a mental category used to represent a class or group of objects, people, organizations, events, situations, or relations that share common characteristics or attributes
    Concept
  6. the process of considering alternatives and choosing among them
    decision making
  7. reasoning from the general to the specific, or drawing particular conclusions from general principles
    deductive reasoning
  8. the underlying meaning of a sentence
    deep structure
  9. a decision-making approach in which alternatives are eliminated if they do not satisfy a set of factors that have been ordered from most to least important
    elimination by aspects
  10. the individual instances, or examples, of a concept that are stored in memory from personal experience
    exemplars
  11. a concept that is clearly defined by a set of rules, a formal defintion, or classification system
    formal concept
  12. the way information is presented so as to emphasize either a potential gain or a potential loss as the outcome of a decision based on that information
    framing
  13. the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of a tendency to view objects only in terms of their customary functions
    funtional fixedness
  14. a rule of thumb that is derived from experience and used in decision making and problem solving, although there is no guarantee of its accuracy or usefulness
    heuristic
  15. the representation in the mind of a sensory experience- visual, auditory, gustatory, motor, olfactory, or tactile
    imagery
  16. reasoning in which general conclusions are drawn from particular facts or individual cases
    inductive reasoning
  17. a means of communicating thoguhts and feelings, using a system of socially shared but arbitrary symbols (sounds, signs or written symbols) arranged according to rules of grammar
    language
  18. a heuristic strategy in which the current position is compared with a desired goal, and a series of steps is formulated and then taken to close the gap between the two
    means-end analysis
  19. the tendency to apply a familiar strategy to solve a problem even though another approach might be better
    mental set
  20. the smallest units of meaning in a language
    morphemes
  21. a concept acquired not from a defintion but through everyday perceptions and experiences
    natural concept
  22. the smallest unit of sound in a spoken language
    phonemes
  23. the characteristics of spoken language, such as intonation and gestures, that indicate the social meaning of utterances
    pragmatics
  24. using thoughts and actions to achieve a desired goal that is not readily attainable
    problem solving
  25. an example that embodies the most common and typical features of a concept
    prototype
  26. a form of thinking in which conclusions are drawn from a set of facts
    reasoning
  27. a thinking strategy based on how closely a new object or situation is judged to resemble or match an existing prototype of that object or situation
    representative heuristic
  28. the meaning derived from morphemes, words and sentences
    semantics
  29. the literal words of a sentence that are spoken or written (or signed)
    surface structure
  30. the aspect of grammar that specifies the rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases and sentences
    syntax
  31. a heuristic strategy in which a person discovers the steps needed to solve a problem by starting with the solution and working back through the problem
    working backwards

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