Nervous System

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ebcross88
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55060
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Nervous System
Updated:
2010-12-12 10:53:52
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CNS PNS anatomy samsam
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Description:
Anatomy of the nervous system.
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  1. Contains the brain and spinal cord.
    Central Nervous System
  2. Contains cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia.
    Peripheral Nervous System
  3. Covers the brain and spinal cord.
    Cerebral meninges, dura, arachnoid and pia maters.
  4. The brain and spinal cord are suspended in this.
    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  5. Transmit electrical signals. Found in grey matter of CNS and ganglia.
    Neurons
  6. Nonexcitable, surround and wrap neurons.
    Neuroglial cells (support cells)
  7. Neuroglia in the CNS
    Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
  8. Neuroglia in the PNS
    Satellite cells and Schwann cells
  9. Most abundant glial cell type. They take up and release ions to control the environment around neurons. They recapture and recycle neurotransmitters.
    Astrocytes
  10. Smallest and least abundant neuroglia.
    Microglia
  11. Line the central cavity of the spinal cord and brain.
    Ependymal cells
  12. Produce myelin sheaths in CNS.
    Oligodendrocytes
  13. Surround neuron cell bodies within ganglia.
    Satellite cells
  14. Surrond axons in the PNS and forms myelin sheath around axons in the PNS.
    Schwann cells
  15. The site at which neurons communicate.
    Synapses
  16. Depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane.
    Excitatory synapses
  17. Reduces the ability of the postsynaptic neuron to generate an action potential.
    Inhibitory synapses
  18. Layer of delicate connective tissues surrounding the axon.
    Endoneurium
  19. Groups of axons bound into bundles.
    Nerve fascicles
  20. Connective tissue surrounding a nerve fasicle.
    Perineurium
  21. The whole nerve surrounded by this tough fibrous sheath.
    Epineurium
  22. Picked up by sensor receptors and carried by nerve fibers of PNS to the CNS.
    Sensory (afferent) signal
  23. Carried away from the CNS and innervates muscles and glands.
    Motor (efferent) signals
  24. Touch, pain, pressure, vibration, temperature, and proprioception in skin, body wall, and limbs. Specializes in hearing, equilibrium, vision, and smell.
    Somatic sensory (afferent)
  25. Stretch, pain, temperature, chemical changes, and irritation in viscera; nausea and hunger. Specializes in taste.
    Visceral sensory (afferent)
  26. Motor innervation of all skeletal muscles (except pharyngeal arch muscles)
    Somatic motor (efferent)
  27. Motor innervation of pharyngeal arch muscles
    Branchial motor (efferent)
  28. Motor innervation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands; equivalent to autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    Visceral motor (efferent)
  29. Site where stimulus acts.
    Receptor
  30. Transmits afferent impulses to the CNS
    Sensory neuron
  31. Consists of one or more synapses in the CNS
    Integration center
  32. Conducts efferent impulses from integration center to an effector.
    Motor neuron
  33. A muscle or gland cell that responds to efferent impulses by contracting or secreting.
    Effector
  34. The simplest and fastest of all reflexes that consists of only one synapse.
    Monosynaptic reflex
  35. The more common type of reflex where most have a single interneuron between the sensory and motor neuron.
    Polysynaptic reflex
  36. Functions in automatic behaviors necessary for survival, is a passageway for all fiber tracts running between the cerebrum and the spinal cord, and is heavily involved with the innervation of the face and head.
    Brain stem
  37. Smoothes and coordinates body movements and helps maintain equilibrium.
    Cerebellum
  38. Enables humans to be aware of ourselves and our sensations, initiates and controls voluntary movements, communicates, remembers, and understands.
    Cerebral cortex
  39. Cooperates with the cerebral cortex in controlling movements and receives input from many different cortical areas.
    Basal nuclei
  40. Is situated lateral to the thalamus, is divided by a band of nerve fibers called the internal capsule into the caudate nucleus and the lentiform nucleus.
    Corpus striatum
  41. Is composed of the Globus pallidus and Putamen.
    Lentiform nucleus
  42. Connects the third verticle with the lateral ventricles.
    Interventricular foramen of Monro
  43. Connects the third and fourth ventricles.
    Cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius

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