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The color of blood depends on?
The amount of Oxygen
Normal life span of RBC's?
3 to 4 months
Which portion of blood contains 92% water?
This term describes the protein-pigment after it has left the spleen during old RBC breakdown?
Which blood cell carries Oxygen?
What is the normal range of hemeglobin?
- 12 - 16 grams
- 11 is borderline
- 10 and below is anemic
Leukocytes are which types and what is it normal range?
WBC 5,000 to 10,000
Which plasma protein is the volume expander?
All of the cells which performs phagocytosis are:
The process in which WBC's move through the area of infection?
This multiplies rapidly when the body invaded by bacteria?
Describe the volume % of RBC in whole blood?
The process that WBC's engulf bacteria.
Which of the following initiates the clotting process?
Which plasma protein assists in antibodies & help in immunity?
Describe the normal clotting sequence:
- Tissue injury - Thromboplastin - Prothrombin - Thrombin - Fibrinogen -
This element is necessary for the formation of HBG?
Bile is necessary in what?
The digestion of fat
This plays a major role in RBC destruction?
Term for the platelet plug during an injury?
Plays a major role in clotting mechinism?
Which substances are found in plasma?
proteins and glucose
Development of RBC's not surprise to see A FEW in circulating blood?
Protein-pigment attached to RBC's and carries oxygen?
These blood cells are found to be formed in red bone marrow?
Which type of formation does the RBC's travel in?
Rouleaux (stacked like coins)
What is the normal range for RBC's?
3.5 to 5.5 million
What are the 2 types of WBC's?
Granulocytes & Agranulocytes
What are the 3 Granulocytes
- Neutrophils - 1st to seen of infection
- Eosinophils - fight allergic reactions or antigens
- Basophils- release Heparin which is an anti-coagolant
What ar the 2 Agranulocytes?
- Lymphocytes - help form protein antibodies
- Monocytes - acts like neutrophils first to the seen
What is the normal range for Platelets?
150 to 400,000
What are the functions of Platelets?
- Adhere to each other & injured tissue - forming the platelet plug.
- Release a protein called Thromboplastin
What is the medical term for clumping?
What is Anemia?
Lack of blood and/or it's components.
Define primary anemia?
- Lack of production or over-destruction of whole blood.
- Ex. Neoplastic
Define secondary anemia?
Give an example of secondary anemia.
Define Hypochromic Anemia
- AKA- Iron Deficiency Anemia
- Symptoms: pallor and dizziness
- Treatment: Feosol and Imferon
List some foods which are high in iron.
Liver, spinach, raisins, beets
Define Pernicious Anemia
- AKA-Megaloblastic anemia, decreased B12, inability to carry Oxygen.
- Treatment: B12 injections
Define Aplastic Anemia (Pancytopenia)
- Without formation of Bone marrow
- Cause: Radiation, idiopathic
- Symptoms: pallor, pyrexia, purpura
- Treatment: Transfusions, bone marrow transplant
Give examples of a Hemolytic Anemia
- Erythroblastosis Fetalis
- Sickle Cell Anemia
- Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia, Thalassemia Vera)
- Rh incompability (Rh- mom, Rh+ fetus)
- Symptoms: Jaundice
- Treatment: RhoGam
Define Sickle Cell Anemia
- Defective Hgb molecule, cells sickle
- Cause: hereditary
- Sypmtoms: crisis, sporadic, tissue infarction due to clumping
Define Thalassemia: Who acquires it?
- AKA-(Cooley's Anemia)
- Defective Hgb and RBC's
- Seen in Greeks and Italians
- Symptoms: bone deformities and seldom live to adults (usually die at age 14 or 15
- Deficiency of platelets
- Symptoms: Petechiae and eechymosis
- Treatment: transfusions and splenectomy
Hemorrhages into the skin
Pinpoint red spots/extravasations under the skin
Bleeding into tissue, bruise
- Deficiency of clotting factors.
- Two types A & B
Which clotting factors are Hemophiliacs missing?
- Hemophilia A (Classic) - VIII (8)
- Hemophilia B (Christmas DX) - IX (9)
Who carries Hemophilia and who acquires it?
- The mothers carries it and the son acquires it.
- Type A 80% of hemophilia cases
Which bleeding disorder is the one. Which females can also get?
- Vonwillebrand's Disease - deficiency of factor VIII and platelets
- Occurs in both male and female
- Symptom: increased uterine bleeding
- Iron overload in liver, leading to cirrhosis (rare disorder)
- Sypmtoms: Bronze pigmentation
- Form of Cancer
- Disorder of blood forming organs (spleen, marrow, lymph)
- Widespread, non-functioning WBC's spill into blood, & other tissues
- 20,000 WBC's or more than the normal range
- ALL: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (lymph)
- AML: Acute myeloblasic leukemia (immature bone marrow)
- Gradual onset
- Seen in 50 to 70 year old
- Prognosis is better that acute