A & P

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A & P
2010-12-12 20:07:35
Normal Blood Disorders

Review for Final
Show Answers:

  1. The color of blood depends on?
    The amount of Oxygen
  2. Normal life span of RBC's?
    3 to 4 months
  3. Which portion of blood contains 92% water?
  4. This term describes the protein-pigment after it has left the spleen during old RBC breakdown?
  5. Which blood cell carries Oxygen?
  6. What is the normal range of hemeglobin?
    • 12 - 16 grams
    • 11 is borderline
    • 10 and below is anemic
  7. Leukocytes are which types and what is it normal range?
    WBC 5,000 to 10,000
  8. Which plasma protein is the volume expander?
  9. All of the cells which performs phagocytosis are:
  10. The process in which WBC's move through the area of infection?
  11. This multiplies rapidly when the body invaded by bacteria?
    WBC's (leukocytes)
  12. Describe the volume % of RBC in whole blood?
  13. The process that WBC's engulf bacteria.
  14. Which of the following initiates the clotting process?
    Tissue Injury
  15. Which plasma protein assists in antibodies & help in immunity?
  16. Describe the normal clotting sequence:
    • Tissue injury - Thromboplastin - Prothrombin - Thrombin - Fibrinogen -
    • Fibrin
  17. This element is necessary for the formation of HBG?
    Iron (Fe)
  18. Bile is necessary in what?
    The digestion of fat
  19. This plays a major role in RBC destruction?
  20. Term for the platelet plug during an injury?
  21. Plays a major role in clotting mechinism?
  22. Which substances are found in plasma?
    proteins and glucose
  23. Development of RBC's not surprise to see A FEW in circulating blood?
  24. Protein-pigment attached to RBC's and carries oxygen?
    Hemoglobin (HGB)
  25. These blood cells are found to be formed in red bone marrow?
    • Erythrocyte
    • Leukocytes
    • Thrombocytes
  26. Which type of formation does the RBC's travel in?
    Rouleaux (stacked like coins)
  27. What is the normal range for RBC's?
    3.5 to 5.5 million
  28. What are the 2 types of WBC's?
    Granulocytes & Agranulocytes
  29. What are the 3 Granulocytes
    • Neutrophils - 1st to seen of infection
    • Eosinophils - fight allergic reactions or antigens
    • Basophils- release Heparin which is an anti-coagolant
  30. What ar the 2 Agranulocytes?
    • Lymphocytes - help form protein antibodies
    • Monocytes - acts like neutrophils first to the seen
  31. What is the normal range for Platelets?
    150 to 400,000
  32. What are the functions of Platelets?
    • Adhere to each other & injured tissue - forming the platelet plug.
    • Release a protein called Thromboplastin
  33. What is the medical term for clumping?
  34. Blood Typing
  35. What is Anemia?
    Lack of blood and/or it's components.
  36. Define primary anemia?
    • Lack of production or over-destruction of whole blood.
    • Ex. Neoplastic
  37. Define secondary anemia?
  38. Give an example of secondary anemia.
  39. Define Hypochromic Anemia
    • AKA- Iron Deficiency Anemia
    • Symptoms: pallor and dizziness
    • Treatment: Feosol and Imferon
  40. List some foods which are high in iron.
    Liver, spinach, raisins, beets
  41. Define Pernicious Anemia
    • AKA-Megaloblastic anemia, decreased B12, inability to carry Oxygen.
    • Treatment: B12 injections
  42. Define Aplastic Anemia (Pancytopenia)
    • Without formation of Bone marrow
    • Cause: Radiation, idiopathic
    • Symptoms: pallor, pyrexia, purpura
    • Treatment: Transfusions, bone marrow transplant
  43. Give examples of a Hemolytic Anemia
    • Erythroblastosis Fetalis
    • Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Thalassemia (Cooley's Anemia, Thalassemia Vera)
  44. Define Erythroblastosis
    • Rh incompability (Rh- mom, Rh+ fetus)
    • Symptoms: Jaundice
    • Treatment: RhoGam
  45. Define Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Defective Hgb molecule, cells sickle
    • Cause: hereditary
    • Sypmtoms: crisis, sporadic, tissue infarction due to clumping
  46. Define Thalassemia: Who acquires it?
    • AKA-(Cooley's Anemia)
    • Defective Hgb and RBC's
    • Seen in Greeks and Italians
    • Symptoms: bone deformities and seldom live to adults (usually die at age 14 or 15
  47. Define Thrombocytopenia
    • Deficiency of platelets
    • Symptoms: Petechiae and eechymosis
    • Treatment: transfusions and splenectomy
  48. Define Purpura
    Hemorrhages into the skin
  49. Define Petechiae
    Pinpoint red spots/extravasations under the skin
  50. Define Eechymosis
    Bleeding into tissue, bruise
  51. Define Hemophilia
    • Deficiency of clotting factors.
    • Two types A & B
  52. Which clotting factors are Hemophiliacs missing?
    • Hemophilia A (Classic) - VIII (8)
    • Hemophilia B (Christmas DX) - IX (9)
  53. Who carries Hemophilia and who acquires it?
    • The mothers carries it and the son acquires it.
    • Type A 80% of hemophilia cases
  54. Which bleeding disorder is the one. Which females can also get?

    • Vonwillebrand's Disease - deficiency of factor VIII and platelets
    • Occurs in both male and female
    • Symptom: increased uterine bleeding
  55. Define Hemochromatosis
    • Iron overload in liver, leading to cirrhosis (rare disorder)
    • Sypmtoms: Bronze pigmentation
  56. Define Leukemia
    • Form of Cancer
    • Disorder of blood forming organs (spleen, marrow, lymph)
  57. Acute Leukemia
    • Widespread, non-functioning WBC's spill into blood, & other tissues
    • 20,000 WBC's or more than the normal range
    • ALL: Acute lymphocytic leukemia (lymph)
    • AML: Acute myeloblasic leukemia (immature bone marrow)
  58. Chronic Leukemia
    • Gradual onset
    • Seen in 50 to 70 year old
    • Prognosis is better that acute