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What is Hypoxia?
- Deprivation of adequate oxygen supply
- Symptoms: anxiety, restlessness, confusion, drowsiness, increased BP with a small pulse, increased RR and Pulse, pallor, cyanosis
What does a phosphorus restricted diet restrict?
Lean meats and fish.
What is Pharmacokinetics?
Study of the movement of drugs throughout the body.
What are the 4 phases of Pharmacokinetics?
Absoprtion, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion.
What is Excretion?
Most important phase of Pharmacokinetics; need to be able to get rid of the drug to avoid an overdose.
What is Absorption?
Movement of the drug from its site of administration into the blood.
What is Rate? (Pharmacology)
How soon the drug effects begin.
What is Amount? (Pharmacology)
The amount of the drug absorbed helps determine how intense the effects will be.
What is the safest method to administer a drug?
- Advantages: Convienent, safe, economical.
- Disadvantages: variences in absorption, can be irritating to the GI system
What is the First Pass Effect?
Some drugs will go through liver and then they are deactivated; disadvantage of oral drugs, can get chemically broken down.
What is Distribution? (Pharmacology)
- Movement of the drug throughout the body.
- Depends on blood flow and ability of the drug to exit the vascular system.
- Increased vascular system = increased absorption of the drug
What is Metabolism? (Pharmacology)
- Alteration of a drug structure.
- Almost all metabolism takes place in the liver.
What is the role of Protein and Albumin in Pharmacokinetics?
- They carry drugs through blood. Bound molecules are inactive; molecules flowing freely through blood cause problems.
- Too many drugs with low protein/albumin are not getting where they need to go and flow freely in the blood, causing confusion and dizziness.
WHat is the minimum effective concentration?
The minimum drug level needed for a therapeutic response to occur.
What are the benefits of an IV drip?
Keeps the med administration steady over time so that it never drops out of therapeutic range.
What does a low Therapeutic Index mean?
There is a small error range before the drug gets toxic.
What are Peak & Trough Levels?
Max and Min dose to be therapeutic.
What is a Drug Half-Life?
Time it takes to decrease the amount of the drug by half.
What is Bioavailability?
Drug time to effect; therapeutically available; when it will work.
What is Maximal Efficacy?
Largest drug effectiveness; most it will do to help.
What is Pharmacodynamics?
Study of mechanism of drug actions in living tissues.
What is a Side Effect?
Action of drug other than what the drug was intended for
What is Toxic Effect?
Adverse effect caused by excessive dosing
What is a Idiosyncratic Effect?
Abnormal effect never seen before
What is a Cumulative Effect?
The drug may have a toxic effect because the drug is not excreting and accumulates.
What is Hypoventilation?
Decreased rate or depth of air movement into the lungs.
What is Hyperventilation?
Increased rate or depth of air movement into the lungs.
What is Fremitus?
Vibration of the chest wall that can be palpated.
What is Pleural Effusion?
Fluid in the Pleural space
With Cardiac Arrest, what is the Critical Time?
4-6 minutes before irreversible brain damage
What is the most concentrated source of Energy?
What Vitamin is essential for Alcoholics?
Vitamin B, because these nutrients are used to metabolize alcohol.
What is Soy?
A complete plant protein that contains all of the essential amino acids.
What is Glossitis?
Inflammation of the Tongue
What is the Summation drug effect?
Get the full effect of both drugs.
What is the Synergism drug effect?
2 drug combined gives a greater effect than each alone.
What is the Antagonism drug effect?
One drug ruins the effect of the other drug.
What is the Interference drug effect?
One drug slows down or speeds up the metabolism or excretion of the other drug
What is the Displacement drug effect?
Both drugs are competing on the albumin to be carried to the site in the blood, which results in toxicity in the blood.
What are the body locations for a shot given in the Ventrogluteal location?
Iliac Crest, Anterior superior iliac crest.
What is Elixir?
A sweetened alcohol solution
What is the medical use of Cocaine?
Used in nasal surgery to vasoconstrict and minimize bleeding.
What are the 5 steps of the Nursing Process?
Assessment, Diagnosis, Outcome Identification and Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation.
What are the reasons for Elderly non-compliance with medications?
- Confusion over schedules and doses
- Excessive financial expense
How can diabetes affect wound healing?
- Diabetes causes hemoglobin to have less O2 available to be released to the tissues.
- Vessels are smaller in diabetics, so less O2 is perfused to the tissues.
What is Dehiscence?
Caused by a strain; wound layers open up.
What is Evisceration?
Contents of bowels and intestines come out of open wound.
What is a Fistula?
- A tunnel that forms between two organs or within.
- Wound heals and patient still complains weeks after surgery
What are Keloids?
- Excessive production of collagen
- Raised Scar
- Often grows back even if repaired
What is a Perferating Wound?
Object enters all the way through and exits.