Urinary system chap. 26

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Urinary system chap. 26
2010-12-12 18:03:24
Anatomy urinary system

Chapter 26 urinary system
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  1. What basic functions does the urinary system serve?
    Eliminate toxins, excess ions, organic wastes, & excess water.
  2. What are the other functions of the urinary system?
    Regulate the volume & chemical makeup of blood, regulate blood pressure/volume (erythropoietin & renin), regulate blood pH, conservation of nutrients, synthesizing calcitriol, & homeostasis (maintain solute concentration).
  3. Name the four components of the urinary system.
    Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, & uretha.
  4. Where does urine production occur?
    At the nephrons in the cortex of each renal lobe.
  5. What forms the renal pelvis?
    The combining of major calyces.
  6. Where is the cortex of the kidney?
    The outer layer
  7. Each kidney receives blood from where?
    The renal artery.
  8. Where does the renal artery originate?
    Along the lateral surface of the abdominal aorta near the level of the superior mesenteric artery.
  9. What does the renal artery branch into as it enters the renal sinus?
    The segmental arteries.
  10. What do segmental arteries further divide into?
    A series of interlobar arteries.
  11. Where do the segmental arteries radiate?
    Outwards, penetrating the fibrous capsule & extending through the renal columns between the renal pyramids into the cortex.
  12. What vessels do the interlobar arteries supply blood to?
    Arcuate arteries
  13. Where are the arcuate arteries located?
    The boundary between the cortex & medulla of the kidneys.
  14. What does each arcuate artery give rise to?
    A number of cortical radiate arteries.
  15. What vessel branches from the cortical radiate arteries?
    Numerous afferent arterioles.
  16. Cortical radiate arteries supply blood to which portions of the kidneys?
    The adjacent renal lobe.
  17. What vessels supplies blood to the individual nephrons?
    Afferent arterioles.
  18. From the nephrons, blood enters a network of venules & small veins that converge on what vessels?
    Interlobular veins.
  19. What is the basic structual & functional unit of the kidneys?
    The nephron.
  20. What function of the arterioles contribute to the regulation of urine production?
    Changes in diameter.
  21. What is the renal tubule?
    A long tubular passageway.
  22. Where does the renal tubule begin?
    At the renal corpuscle.
  23. What does the renal corpuscle contain?
    The glomerulus.
  24. What vessels carry blood to the glomerulus?
    Afferent arterioles.
  25. How does blood depart the glomerulus?
    Throught the efferent arterioles.
  26. From the renal corpuscle filtrate enters a long tubular passageway that is subdivided into what?
    (PCT) Proximal convoluted tubule, the nephron loop (loop of henle), & the (DCT) distal convoluted tubule.
  27. What structure contains the glomerulus?
    The renal corpuscle.
  28. Where are the coritcal nephrons located?
    Almost entirely within the superficial cortex of the kidney.
  29. There are how many cortical nephrons?
    Roughly 85%
  30. What are the nephrons located closer to the medulla called?
    Juxtamedullary nephrons.
  31. Name the vessel that deliver blood to the peritubular capillaries.
    The efferent arteriole.
  32. Which nephrons create conditions necessary for the production of concentrated urine?
    Juxtamedullary nephrons.
  33. There are how many juxtamedullary nephrons?
  34. What is the glomerulus?
    A capillary network which consists of 50 intertwining capillaries.
  35. Where do the peritubular capillaries drain?
    Into small venules that carry blood to the interlobular veins.
  36. What happens in the nephron?
    Filtration, reabsorption & secretion.
  37. What is another name for the glomerular capsule?
    Bowman's capsule.
  38. Capillaries in the glomerulus are what?
  39. Afferent arterioles differ from efferent arterioles in what way?
    Afferent arterioles have a larger diameter.
  40. Name the three barriers within the glomerulus.
    Capillary endothelium (fenestrated), basal lamina, & podocytes.
  41. Where does reabsorption occur?
    Within the renal tubule.
  42. What area of the renal tubule contains microvilli?
    (PCT) Proximal convoluted tubule.
  43. The loop of henle (nephron loop) is distinguished by what two areas?
    Descending & ascending.
  44. What is the vasa recta?
    Extended capillary bed.
  45. Where is the vasa recta located?
    In the ascending portion of the loop of henle.
  46. What area of the renal tubule lacks microvilli?
    (DCT) Distal convoluted tubule.
  47. Where does the distal convoluted tubule open into?
    The collecting duct.
  48. Where is urine transported, stored & elimnated from?
    Transported to ureters, stored in the bladder & eliminated from the uretha.