bio final review

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tuchiyama10
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55142
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bio final review
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2010-12-11 23:07:31
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bio review
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  1. Law of segregation
    2 alleles for a given gene will separate during meiosis and end up in different gametes
  2. Law of independent assortment
    One pair of alleles segregates independently of another pair of alleles during gamete formation
  3. linked genes
    really close on chromosome, inherited together
  4. recombinant genes
    when crossing over happens, genes recombine
  5. what is the important experiment that provided evidence for sex-linked genes?
    fruit fly experiments by Thomas Hunt Morgan
  6. Griffith
    used S. pneumoniae and mice to show that bacteria can be transformed
  7. Hershey & Chase
    used bacteriophages to show that DNA is genetic material.
  8. Franklin and Wilkins
    X-ray diffraction images of DNA
  9. Watson & Crick
    deduced the structure of DNA was a double helix
  10. Linnaeus
    no evolution; created classification system of taxonomy
  11. Lamarck
    inheritance of acquired traits
  12. Erasmus Darwin
    evolution from a common ancestor; competition and sexual selection responsible for species change
  13. Malthus
    believed that resources can only support a limited population
  14. Empedocles
    natural theory of struggle among species
  15. Alfred Wallace
    proposed same evolutionary theory that Darwin did
  16. Aristotle
    created Scala Natura; believed hierarchy of organisms was fixed
  17. Hutton & Lyle
    Gradualism (changes occur slowly in gradual steps)
  18. Cuvier
    Catastrophism (affected in the past by short-lived, violent events, possibly world-wide)
  19. 5 assumptions of HW
    • 1. infinite population
    • 2. no gene flow (or migration)
    • 3. random mating
    • 4. no natural selection
    • 5. no mutation
  20. what 2 forces create genetic variation?
    • mutation
    • sexual recombination
  21. what 3 forces alter allele frequencies in a population?
    • gene flow
    • natural selection
    • genetic drift
  22. what 2 forces preserve genetic variation?
    • balancing selection
    • diploidy
  23. what are 4 modes of selection?
    • directional
    • stabilizing
    • disruptive
    • sexual
  24. what are 2 modes of speciation?
    • allopatric
    • sympatric
  25. heterochrony
    changes in rate and timing of developmental events
  26. allometry
    changes in relative growth rates of different body parts
  27. homeotic genes
    control body plans and the developmental face of cells
  28. hox genes
    determine the position of morphological structures during development
  29. exaptation
    characters that evolved for purposes other than those they are used for
  30. homoplasy
    similarities due to convergent evolution
  31. outgroup
    species least closely related to the rest in a phylogenetic tree
  32. maximum likelihood
    phylogenetic tree based on how DNA changes over time
  33. orthologous genes
    used to compare sequences between species to determine ancestry
  34. paralogous genes
    used to compare sequences within a species to trace evolution of species
  35. 3 threats to biodiversity
    • 1. habitat loss
    • 2. introduced/invasive species
    • 3. overexploitation
  36. order in which life originated
    • 1. abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules
    • 2. small molecules joined together into macromolecules
    • 3. molecules packed into protobionts
    • 4. self-replicating molecules originate
  37. earth formed
    4.6 bya
  38. evolution of prokaryotes, anaerobic bacteria
    3.5 bya
  39. accumulation of oxygen
    2.7 bya
  40. single celled eukaryotes emerge
    2.1 bya
  41. common ancestor of animals
    700 mya
  42. cambrian explosion
    530 mya
  43. animals, plants, fungi colonize land
    460 mya
  44. permian mass extinction
    250 mya
  45. origin of mammals
    180 mya
  46. cretaceous mass extinction
    65 mya
  47. cell wall
    maintains cell shape, provides physical protection, prevents cell from bursting
  48. taxis
    movement towards or away from a stimulus
  49. plasmids
    • rings of self-replicating DNA that carry special functions
    • 2 types: R (antibiotic resistance) and F (sex)
  50. transformation
    uptake of foreign DNA from surroundings
  51. transduction
    bacteriophages carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another
  52. conjugation
    genetic material is transferred b/w 2 bacterial cells that are temporarily joined
  53. heterocytes
    specialized Anabena cells that carry out nitrogen fixation
  54. how is HIV different from normal viruses?
    • it's a retrovirus
    • reverse transcriptase
    • can transform RNA to DNA
  55. model organisms
    • nematodes: RNA
    • sea urchin: cyclin (the protein regulating cell cycling, cancer)
    • jellyfish: GFP
    • seashells: pain/addiction
  56. 3 stage approach
    • 1. make a linkage map
    • 2. make a physical map
    • 3. DNA sequencing
  57. shotgun approach
    • 1. cut up a genome into overlapping fragments
    • 2. DNA sequencing
    • 3. order the sequences
  58. diplomonads
    excavates
  59. paramecium
    ciliates
  60. green algae
    archaeplastids
  61. plasmodial slime molds
    mycetozoans
  62. diatoms
    stramenopiles
  63. trypanosoma
    kinetoplastids
  64. oomycetes
    stramenopiles
  65. forams
    rhizarians
  66. 4 traits unique to land plants
    • 1. alternations of generations
    • 2. walled spores produced in sporangium
    • 3. multicellular gametangia
    • 4. apical meristems
  67. 6 main functions of plasma membrane proteins
    • 1. transport
    • 2. enzyme activity
    • 3. signal transduction
    • 4. cell recognition
    • 5. intracelular joining
    • 6. attachment to other surfaces
  68. in protostome development, coelom develops from?
    mesoderm

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