Physiology Final Exam

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princesspink21
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55145
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Physiology Final Exam
Updated:
2010-12-12 00:30:19
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Physiology
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Description:
Reproduction, Digestion, Stress
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  1. Parthenogenis
    asexual reproduction
  2. Bulbouethral gland:
    gland at the beginning of penis
  3. prostate gland:
    sponge-like gland that holds the ejaculatory duct
  4. Sertoli cells
    • "nurse cells" - darker with large nucleus inside the testes
    • regulate sperm
  5. Sperm is finalized where?
    epididymis
  6. Leydig cells:
    produce androgens (testosterone) in the testes
  7. muscles that release and pull the testes closere and farther from the body:
    Dartos & Cremaster muscles
  8. vas deferens:
    joins urethra via ejaculatory duct in prostate gland
  9. How an erection occurs:
    • innervation to penis --> artery/arteriole dilation --> increased blood volume in erctile tissue --> physical compression of veins --> erection
    • PARASYMPATHETIC
  10. Erection Reflex (from brain directly):
    higher brain centers - descending autonomic pathways - parasympathetic stimulated - penile arterioles vasodilate - erection
  11. Erection Reflex (from touching):
    tactile stimuli - mechonoreceptor - sensory neuron - spinal cord - ascending sensory pathway - higher brain centers
  12. Seminal vessicle:
    two reproductive glands in males next to urinary bladder
  13. What do reproductive glands do?
    production of seminal fluied and its constituents
  14. Stroma:
    directly inside the ovary
  15. Granulosa cells:
    develop gamete in females
  16. Theca cells:
    produce androgen, converted to estrogen by granulosa cells
  17. Endometrium
    most inside part of uterus
  18. myometrium
    inside layer of uterus
  19. outer connective tissue
    outside most layer of uterus
  20. what do endocervical gland do?
    secrete mucus
  21. mon pubis:
    • pubic mound
    • covers pubic bone with adipose tissue
  22. Labia majora
    outer skin fold
  23. labia minora
    inner skin fold
  24. vestibule
    region enclosed by labia minora
  25. vestibular glands
    • on either side of opening to vagina
    • lubrication
  26. hymen
    hole to enter the vagina
  27. Acrosome
    • vey tip of sperm
    • storage
    • contains enzymes
  28. centrioles
    middle b/w head and tail of sperm
  29. microtubules
    tubes in tail of sperm
  30. Hormonal Regulation:
    Hypothalamus --> GnRH secretion --> anteriro pituitary --> FSH secretion (OR) LH secretion
  31. FSH secretion in males:
    • FSH secretion --> Sertoli cells --> inhibin secretion (OR) spermatogenisis
    • inhibin secretion = (-) feedback to anterior pituitary
  32. LH secretion in males:
    • LH secretion --> Leydig cells --> testosterone secretion --> Sertoli cells (OR) general cirulation
    • testosterone secretion = (-) feedback to anterior pituitary & hypothalamus
  33. What NS does an orgasm use?
    • Sympathetic NS
    • 3 mL ~ 100 million sperm/mL
  34. Primordial follicle:
    many little circles
  35. Zona pelucida
    outer layer of inner circle
  36. Granulosa cells in follicle:
    outer circle around oocyte
  37. Theca cells in follicle
    outer layer of entire cell
  38. follicle that only one lives past this point?
    Graafin follicle
  39. What hormones does the Corpus Luteum secrete?
    • estrogen
    • progesterone
  40. FSH secretion in female:
    • FSH secretion --> Granulosa cells --> inhibin secretion (OR) oogenesis and follicular development
    • inhibin secretion = (-) feedback to anterior pituitary
  41. LH secretion in female:
    • LH secretion --> Theca cells --> androgen secretion --> granulosa cells --> enzymatic modification of androgens --> estrogen secretion --> Granulosa cells (OR) general circulation
    • Estrogen secretion = (-) feedback to anterior pituitary and Hypothalamus
  42. Menarche
    initial onset of menstruation ~ age 12
  43. Follicular phase:
    • Proliferative phase: regrowth of endometrial tissue in prep for potential pregnancy - in response to estrogen
    • LH goes up at end of phase before ovulation
    • Estrogen goes up before ovulation
  44. Luteal Phase:
    • Secretory phase: uterine secretions of fluids rich in glycogen
    • late secretory phase - cervical plug
    • maintanance by estrogen and progesterone
    • glycogen in case embryo gets planted
    • body temp goes up due to progesterone
  45. Early to mid-follicular stage:
    • GnRH --> FSH & LH --> granulosa cells & thecal cells --> estrogens & androgens
    • estrogens = (+) feedback to granulosa cells & (-) feedback to FSH & LH & GnRH
  46. Late follicular phase & ovulation:
    • GnRH --> FSH & LH --> granulosa cells and thecal cells --> inhibin, high estrogen & small progesterone, androgens
    • inhibin = (-) feedback to FSH
    • high estrogen = (+) feedback to GnRH
    • progesterone = (+) feedback to LH & GnRH
  47. Early to mid-luteal phase:
    • GnRH --> FSH(down) & LH(down) --> Corpus Luteum --> secretes high estrogen, high progesteron, high inhibin
    • hormones = (-) feedback to GnRH, FSH, LH
  48. Late luteal phase:
    • GnRH tonic secretion --> FSH & LH (both go up) --> new follicles begin to develop & corpus luteum dies --> estrogen & progesterone (both go down)
    • back to beginning
  49. Fertilization:
    • sperm capacitiaton
    • acrosomal reaction - enzymes disolve
    • cortical & zona reactions - keep rest of sperm out of egg
  50. How to prevent menstration?
    • placenta keeps corpus luteum from degenerating during first 2 months by secreting hCG (begins during blastocyst stage)
    • corpus luteum degenerates, placenta begins producing progesterone, estrogen, inhibin
  51. Chorion:
    layer directly outside of amniotic fluid
  52. How does birth work?
    • fetus drops low in uterus --> cervical stretch
    • - (+) feedback to oxytocin from posterior pituitary
    • - (+) feedback to uterine contractions
    • -- contractions (+) feedback to cervical stretch
    • Oxytocin from posterior pituitary --> postaglandins from uterine wall
    • - (+) feedback to uterine contractions
    • - oxytocin (+) feedback to contractions
  53. Colostrum:
    • low volume, low fat, low Ca++
    • high protein, carbs
    • maternal antibodies
    • stimulate GI tract
  54. Milk:
    • high fat, high lactose, high Ca++
    • stimulates gut bacteria colonization & proliferation
  55. Birth control:
    • prevent the pituitary glands release of hormones that stimulate ovulation
    • estrogens, progestins -- inhibit GnRH -- no FSH
    • progestins - thicken cervical mucus and prevent sperm movement
  56. Genital tubercle turns into:
    clit or glans penis
  57. Urethral folds and groove turn into:
    labia minora, opening of vagina and utethra OR shaft of penis
  58. Labioscrotal swellings turn into:
    Labia majora OR shaft of penis and scrotum
  59. Gonad (cortex) turns into:
    ovary OR regresses
  60. Gonad (medulla) turns into:
    regresses OR testis
  61. Wolffian duct turns into:
    regresses (testosterone absent) OR epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vessicle (testosterone present)
  62. Mullerian duct turns into:
    fallopian tube, uterus, cervix, upper 1/3 of vagina (AMH absent) OR regresses (AMH present)
  63. Gallbladder
    under the liver
  64. Pancreas
    under the stomach
  65. Mucosa
    • most inside layer of small intestine with spike like things
    • absorption secretory, goblet cells, GI tract epithelial somatic stem cells
  66. goblet cells:
    in sm intestine, make mucus
  67. Stem cells:
    in sm intestine, become other mucosa cells, common to develop cancer
  68. Submucosa:
    • directly inside mucosa in sm intestine
    • connective tissue, provides elasticity, region of large blood vessels & enteric NS
  69. Serosa:
    • blue layer directly ouside the longitudinal muscle in sm intestine
    • structural support, lubrication
  70. Saliva contains:
    • bicarbonate: make more basic
    • amylase, lypase: breakdown fat/starch
    • immune function: lyosye (breakdown cell walls), IgA
  71. Lower esophageal sphincter
    smooth muscle
  72. upper esophageal sphincter
    skeletal muscle
  73. pyloric sphincter
    release chyme into small intestine
  74. Duodenum
    • 1st part of large intestine
    • chyme mixed w/ pancreatic secretions and bile
    • contains digestic enzymes and bicarbonate
  75. Jejunum
    • 2nd part of lg intestine
    • digestion/absorption usually done early here
  76. Ileum
    • 3rd part of the lg intestine
    • transport to colon
  77. Ileocecal sphincter
    regulates chyme flow from sm intestine to lg intestine
  78. Internal anal sphincter
    smooth muscle closest to rectum
  79. external anal sphincter
    skeletal muscle closest to anus
  80. osmotic diarrhea
    unabsorbed solutes
  81. secretory diarrhea
    pathogen induced
  82. exocrine
    secretes pancreatic juice into sm intestine
  83. liver function:
    • bile secretion
    • metabolism of nutrients
    • removal of old RBC and bacteria from blood
    • breakdown of toxins
    • plasma protein synthesis
    • activation/breakdown of hormones
  84. Hepatic Portal System:
    1st capillary bed picks up absorbed nutrients from intestines --> hepatic portal vein --> 2nd bed in liver for filtration leaves portal system via hepatic vein --> inferior vena cava
  85. Gastrin:
    • source = stomach
    • stimulus = food presense
    • target = stomach
    • function = stimulates gastric acid release
  86. Secretin:
    • source = sm intestine
    • stimulus = acidificaiton (enzyme)
    • target = pancreas & stomach
    • Function = stimulates bicarbonate, inhibits gastric acid
  87. Ghrelin
    • source = stomach
    • stimulus = ?
    • target = hypothalamus
    • function = increases hunger
  88. Homeostasis
    • Organism in homeostasis --> External changes (OR) Internal changes --> internal change results in loss of homeostasis --> organism attempts to compensate --> compensation fails (OR) succeeds --> leads to illness or disease (OR) wellness
    • Internal changes: stressor
    • Attempting to compensate: The Stress Response
  89. Step 1 of stress:
    • fight or flight
    • sympathetic NS
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • heart rate, O2 intake, blood flow, blood glucose INCREASE
  90. Step 2 of stress:
    • General Adaption Syndrome
    • alarm reaction
    • resistance
    • exhaustion - continued exposure to stress hormones
  91. Cortisol release:
    • acts within mins – hrs (releasing energy)
    • HPA pathway for cortisol secretion:
    • Stress --> CRH (from hypothalamus) --> ACTH (from anterior pituitary) --> Cortisol (from adrenal cortex) -->
    • --**Immune system --> funtion suppressed
    • --Liver --> gluconeogenesis
    • --Muscle --> protein catabolism
    • --Adipose tissue --> lipolysis (sustained energy availability)
  92. Immune Function:
    • Immunoredistribution (by Epi/NE) --> leukocytes from blood to tissue/skin
    • Enhanced inflammatory response
    • No new leukocytes produced
    • Lymphocytes actively suppressed – metabolically costly
  93. Psychosocial stress depends on:
    • Perception
    • Predictability (more prediction = less stress)
    • Sense of Control (more control = lower stress)
    • Outlet for frustration/comfort

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